Geology and Geomorphology

  • Mostafa Karimian Eghbal
  • Nikoo Hamzehpour
  • Mohammad Hady Farpoor
Chapter
Part of the World Soils Book Series book series (WSBS)

Abstract

Soil formation is a complex phenomenon. The role of geology is mostly prominent through the influence of lithology in the production of parent material and tectonics in the geoform of structural origin. Geomorphology plays an important role in soil formation through relief, surface morphodynamics, morphoclimatic context, weathering and time (age). The geological zones and their related geomorphic features are dealt with as related to soil distribution. The Iranian Plateau is divided to eight structural zones. The Zagros mountain chain contains the most important sedimentary basins comprised mainly of calcareous detrital sediments. Karst features are the major expression of the Zagros landscape. The other mountain chain—Alborz zone—is composed of sedimentary rocks including limestone, dolomitic, and clastic rocks. Large areas in northern Iran are covered by loess deposits with a thickness of 30–70 m. Central Iran is composed of a series of inland basins and more than 60 playas. Makran zone, in east and southeast of Iran, is composed of uplands with varying width and altitude, irregular in trend and physiography. Various landforms such as fans, terraces, valleys, outwash deposits studied in several case studies from different regions of Iran are reviewed to show the close relationship between soils and geomorphology.

Keywords

Iran Geology Geomorphology Structural zones Landforms 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mostafa Karimian Eghbal
    • 1
  • Nikoo Hamzehpour
    • 2
  • Mohammad Hady Farpoor
    • 3
  1. 1.Tarbiat Modares UniversityTehranIran
  2. 2.University of MaraghehMaraghehIran
  3. 3.Shahid Bahonar University of KermanKermanIran

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