Advertisement

Introduction and Background

  • Andrea Teti
  • Pamela Abbott
  • Francesco Cavatorta
Chapter
Part of the Reform and Transition in the Mediterranean book series (RTM)

Abstract

The Arab Uprisings were events of rare intensity in Middle Eastern history as mass, popular and largely non-violent revolts which threatened and toppled supposedly stable autocracies. Branded them the region’s ‘1989 moment’, when counter-revolution followed revolution, artificial expectations gave way to equally misplaced disaffection, still fails to recognise the Uprisings’ originality and diversity. Focusing on three cases epitomising different post-Uprising trajectories—Tunisia, Jordan and Egypt—this chapter explores how the Uprisings have been analysed. Explanations for the Uprisings fall into three categories, over-emphasising in turn chances for democratisation, cultural or material obstacles to democracy, or the stability of ‘hybrid regimes’. The chapter contextualises events leading to the Uprisings in each country and examines strengths and weaknesses of the toolkit through which the Uprisings have been viewed.

Keywords

Arab Uprisings Modernisation Political transformation Democratisation Authoritarianism Authoritarian resilience 

References

Macro Indicators and Indexes

  1. World Development Indicators. http://data.worldbank.org/products/wdi

Other References

  1. Abbott, P., Sapsford, R. J., Diez-Nicholas, J., & Teti, A. (2017). The Methods Handbook for the Political and Social Transformations in the Arab World Project. Aberdeen: University of Aberdeen.Google Scholar
  2. African Development Bank. (2017). Tunisia – Country Strategy Paper 2017–2021. Tunis: African Development Bank.Google Scholar
  3. Al-Arian, A. (2014). A State Without a State: The Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood’s Social Welfare Institutions. Project on Middle East Political Science. Retrieved from https://pomeps.org/2014/09/30/a-state-without-a-state-the-egyptian-muslim-brotherhoods-social-welfare-institutions/
  4. Anderson, L. (2011). Demystifying the Arab Spring: Parsing the Differences Between Tunisia, Egypt, and Libya. Foreign Affairs 90(3), 2–7.Google Scholar
  5. Ayubi, N. N. (1995). Over-Stating the Arab State: Politics and Society in the Middle East. London: I.B. Tauris.Google Scholar
  6. Beinin, J. (2015). Workers and Thieves: Labor Movements and Popular Uprisings in Tunisia and Egypt. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Beinin, J. (2016). Political Economy and Social Movement Theory Perspectives on the Tunisian and Egyptian Popular Uprisings of 2011. LSE Middle East Centre Paper Series, 14. London: LSE Middle East Centre.Google Scholar
  8. Bellin, E. (2012). Reconsidering the Robustness of Authoritarianism in the Middle East: Lessons from the Arab Spring. Comparative Politics, 44(2), 127–149.Google Scholar
  9. Boukhars, A. (2017). The Fragility of Elite Settlements in Tunisia. African Security Review,26(3), 257–270. Google Scholar
  10. Carothers, T. (2002). The End of the Transition Paradigm. Journal of Democracy, 13(1), 5–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. CIVICUS. (2017). State of Civil Society Report. Retrieved from http://www.civicus.org/index.php/state-of-civil-society-report-2017
  12. Dahl, R. A. (1973). Polyarchy: Participation and Opposition. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Dahl, R. (1989). Democracy and Its Critics. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Ferguson, P. A. (2017). The State of Jordanian Women’s Movement – Five Years Beyond the Arab Spring. Politics and Governance, 5(2), 59–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fukuyama, F. (1989). The End of History? The National Interest, 16, 3–18.Google Scholar
  16. Fund for Peace. (2016). Fragile State Index 2016. Washington, DC: The Fund for Peace.Google Scholar
  17. Gause, G., III. (2011). Why Middle East Studies Missed the Arab Spring? Foreign Affairs, 90(4), 81–90.Google Scholar
  18. Gray, D. (2012). Tunisia After the Uprising: Islamist and Secular Quests for Women’s Rights. Mediterranean Politics, 17(3), 285–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hanieh, A. (2013). Lineages of Revolt: Issues of Contemporary Capitalism in the Middle East. Chicago: Haymarket Books.Google Scholar
  20. Hanieh, A. (2015). Shifting Priorities or Business as Usual? Continuity and Change in the Post-2011 IMF and World Bank Engagement with Tunisia, Morocco and Egypt. British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 42(1), 119–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Helfont, S., & Helfont, T. (2012). Jordan: Between the Arab Spring and the Gulf Cooperation Council. Orbis, 56(1), 82–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hinnebusch, R. (2006). Authoritarian Persistence, Democratization Theory and the Middle East: An Overview and Critique. Democratization, 13(3), 373–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hinnebusch, R. (Ed.). (2015). From Arab Spring to Arab Winter: Explaining the Limits of Post-Uprisings Democratization. Democratisation 22(2).Google Scholar
  24. Holmes, A. A. (2017). Tightening the Noose on Egypt’s Civil Society. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.Google Scholar
  25. Huber, D. (2013). US and EU Human Rights and Democracy Promotion Since the Arab Spring. Rethinking Its Content, Targets and Instruments. The International Spectator, 48(3), 98–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Huntington, S. P. (1968). Political Order in Changing Societies. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Hyland, J. (1996). Democratic Theory: The Philosophical Foundations. Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Inglehart, R. (1997). Modernisation and Postmodernisation: Cultural, Economic and Political Changes in 43 Societies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Inglehart, R., & Welzel, C. (2005). Modernization, Cultural Change and Democracy: The Human Development Sequence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kaldor, M. (2011, February 7). Civil Society in 1989 and 2011. Open Democracy.Google Scholar
  31. Kao, K. (2012). Jordan’s Ongoing Electoral Law Battle. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Retrieved from http://carnegieendowment.org/sada/?fa=48781
  32. Kolman, I. (2017). Gender Activism in Salafism: A Case Study of Salafi Women in Tunis. In F. Cavatorta & F. Merone (Eds.), Salafism After the Arab Awakening. Contending with People’s Power. London: Hurst & Co.Google Scholar
  33. Linz, J. J., & Stepan, A. (1996a). Toward Consolidated Democracies. Journal of Democracy, 7(2), 14–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Linz, J. J., & Stepan, A. (1996b). Problems of Democratic Transition and Consolidation. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Lomazzi, V., Abbott, P., & Sapsford, R. J. (2017). A Guide to the Use of the Arab Transformations Longitudinal Data Base. Aberdeen: University of Aberdeen.Google Scholar
  36. Malmvig, H. (2014). Free us from Power: Governmentality, Counter-Conduct, and Simulation in European Democracy and Reform Promotion in the Arab World. International Political Sociology, 8, 293–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Marks, M. (2013). Youth Politics and Tunisian Salafism. Mediterranean Politics, 18, 107–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Marshall, S. (2015). The Egyptian Armed Forces and the Remaking of an Economic Empire. Carnegie Middle East Centre. Retrieved from http://carnegieendowment.org/files/egyptian_armed_ forces.pdf
  39. Martínez, J. C. (2016). Jordan’s Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: The Production of Feeble Political Parties and the Perceived Perils of Democracy. British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 44(3), 356–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Marzouki, N. (2015, July 10). Tunisia’s Rotten Compromise. MERIP.Google Scholar
  41. Merone, F. (2014). Enduring Class Struggle in Tunisia: The Fight for Identity Beyond Political Islam. British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 42(1), 74–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Mitchell, T. (1991). The Limits of the State: Beyond Statist Approaches and Their Critics. American Political Science Review, 85(1), 77–96.Google Scholar
  43. O’Donnell, G. A. (1996a). Illusions About Consolidation. Journal of Democracy, 7(2), 31–45.Google Scholar
  44. O’Donnell, G. A. (1996b). Illusions and Conceptual Flaws. Journal of Democracy, 7, 160–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. O’Donnell, G. A., & Schmitter, P. C. (1986). Transitions from Authoritarian Rule: Tentative Conclusions About Uncertain Democracies. London and Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  46. Pace, M., & Cavatorta, F. (2012). The Arab Uprisings in Theoretical Perspectives. Mediterranean Politics, 17(2), 125–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Rivetti, P., & Di Peri, R. (2015). Continuity and Change Before and After the Arab Uprisings. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  48. Robbins, M., & Rubin, L. (2013). The Rise of Official Islam in Jordan. Politics, Religion, and Ideology, 14(1), 59–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sfeir, A. (2006). Tunisie: Terre des Paradoxes. Paris: Archipel.Google Scholar
  50. Shenker, J. (2017). The Egyptians: A Radical History of Egypt’s Unfinished Revolution. An Afterword. Mada. Retrieved from https://www.madamasr.com/en/2017/01/24/opinion/u/the-egyptians-a-radical-history-of-egypts-unfinished-revolution/
  51. Teti, A. (2012). Beyond Lies the Wub: The Challenges of Post-Democratization. Middle East Critique, 21(1), 5–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Teti, A. (2015). Democracy Without Social Justice: Marginalization of Social and Economic Rights in EU Democracy Assistance Policy After the Arab Uprisings. Middle East Critique, 24(1), 9–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Teti, A., & Abbott, P. (2017). Arab Transformations Project Framework Paper. Arab Transformations Working Paper No. 4. Social Science Research Net Electronic Journal.Google Scholar
  54. Teti, A., & Gervasio, G. (2011). The Unbearable Lightness of Authoritarianism: Lessons from the Arab Uprisings. Mediterranean Politics, 16(2), 321–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Teti, A., Gervasio, G., & Anceschi, L. (2014). Crossing the Formal/Informal Boundary. In G. Gervasio, L. Anceschi, & A. Teti (Eds.), Informal Geographies of Power. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  56. Valbjorn, M. (2015). Reflections on Self-Reflections – On Framing the Analytical Implications of the Arab Uprisings for the Study of Arab Politics. Democratization, 22(2), 218–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Wagemakers, J. (2016). Salafism in Jordan: Political Islam in a Quietist Community. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Whitehead, L. (1986). International Aspects of Democratization. In G. O’Donnell, P. Schmitter, & L. Whitehead (Eds.), Transitions from Authoritarian Rule: Comparative Perspectives. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  59. World Bank. (2015). Predictions, Perceptions and Economic Reality. MENA Quarterly Economic Brief. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrea Teti
    • 1
  • Pamela Abbott
    • 1
  • Francesco Cavatorta
    • 2
  1. 1.University of AberdeenAberdeenUK
  2. 2.Laval UniversityQuébecCanada

Personalised recommendations