Records are “data or information in a fixed form that is created or received in the course of individual or institutional activity and set aside (preserved) as evidence of that activity.” What gives data their recordness—what allows us to sometimes think of data as records—are data’s relationship to the activities that created them and in turn their evidence of those activities. How institutions conceive of “records” varies greatly. Some institutions understand records broadly, considering all documents to be records. Other institutions think of records more narrowly, considering only the documents that have been formally declared as a record in an authoritative recordkeeping system as records. In this chapter, we take a relatively broad view of records to be any document with information fixed in any form that has a relationship with any business activity. Records can come in a variety of formats. Traditionally, we think of records as formal documents like an agenda or meeting minutes. The definition of records we use in this chapter is a broader notion of the term. Records can be a website, an instant message conversation, a voice mail, videos or surveillance tapes, an email, or a dataset. To properly manage records, it is important to understand the full information infrastructure and the variety of formats used within an organization.