Independent ESP Learners: The Case for Blended Learning
The current educational system has been criticized for not answering the needs of the knowledge-based society (Robinson, Changing education paradigms. Accessed 14 Nov 2016, from http://www.ted.com/talks/ken_robinson_changing_education_paradigms, 2010; Bates and Sangrà, Managing technology in higher education: strategies for transforming teaching and learning. Wiley, San Francisco, 2011). At the same time, the demand for massive open online courses (MOOCs) is increasing fast. After describing the different instructional options available online, we argue that MOOCs are not the optimum solution for ESP educators, whose role is to help learners communicate in the second language independently as well as to develop their critical and creative thinking. Instead, we advocate a methodology that combines a face-to-face approach with the use of information and communications technology (ICT), which is referred to as blended teaching, and in particular a flipped classroom strategy. This has the benefit of maintaining social interaction, which is key in the learning process (Vygotsky, Mind in the society: the development of higher psychological processes. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1978), in the classroom and in online development. The chapter closes with a number of practical examples as to how to ensure successful implementation of online social interaction.
KeywordsMOOCs Blended learning Flipped classroom Vygotsky Role of the teacher Independent learners Social tools Discussions
- Bach, S., Haynes, P., & Lewis Smith, J. (2007). Online learning and teaching in higher education. New York: Open University Press.Google Scholar
- Bates, T. (2012). What’s right and what’s wrong about Coursera-style MOOCs? http://www.tonybates.ca/2012/08/05/whats-right-and-whats-wrong-about-coursera-style-moocs/. Accessed 14 Nov 2016.
- Bates, T., & Sangrà, A. (2011). Managing technology in higher education: Strategies for transforming teaching and learning. San Francisco: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Council of Europe. (2001). Common European framework of reference for languages: Learning, teaching, assessment. Cambridge: Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge.Google Scholar
- Daniel, J. (2012). Making sense of MOOCs: Musings in a maze of myth, paradox and possibility. Journal of Interactive Media in Education. http://www-jime.open.ac.uk/article/2012-18/html. Accessed 14 Nov 2016.
- Ellis. (2005/2011). Principles of instructed language learning. In L. Ortega (Ed.), Second language acquisition. Critical concepts in linguistics (Vol. VI, pp. 291–307). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Freeland, J. (2014). Blending toward competency early patterns of blended learning and competency-based education in New Hampshire. http://www.christenseninstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/Blending-toward-competency.pdf. Accessed 14 Nov 2016.
- Goldin-Meadow, S. (2005). Hearing gesture: How our hands help us think. Boston: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Halliday, M. A. K. (1994). An introduction to functional grammar (2nd ed.). London: Edward Arnold.Google Scholar
- Holmes, J. (2016). Intercultural communication in the workplace: Challenges for newcomers. Talk given at the Hong Kong Polytechnic University, 30 September, 2016.Google Scholar
- Kasper, G., & Rose, K. R. (2002/2011). The role of instruction in learning second language pragmatics. In L. Ortega (Ed.), Second language acquisition. Critical concepts in linguistics (Vol. VI, pp. 340–367). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Lakoff, G. (2013). George Lakoff on embodied cognition and language. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XWYaoAoijdQ Accessed 14 Nov 2016.
- Lantolf, J., & Appel, G. (1994). Theoretical framework: An introduction to perspectives on second language research. In J. Lantolf & G. Appel (Eds.), Vygotskian approaches to second language research (pp. 1–32). Norwood: Ablex Publishing Corporation.Google Scholar
- Lopez-Ozieblo, R. (2013). Reflections on the use of nonverbal communication in teaching spanish to sino-speakers. Revista de Lenguas para Fines Específicos, 19, 321–340.Google Scholar
- Mehrabian, A. (1972). Nonverbal communication. Chicago: Aldine-Atherton.Google Scholar
- Oblinger, D., & Oblinger, J. (Eds.) (2005). Educating the net generation. https://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/pub7101.pdf. Accessed 14 Nov 2016.
- OECD Country note: United Kingdom. (2014). https://www.oecd.org/unitedkingdom/United%20Kingdom-EAG2014-Country-Note.pdf. Accessed 19 Sept 2017.
- Rizzolatti, G., & Craighero, L. (2004). The mirror-neuron system. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 27, 169–192. http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.neuro.27.070203.144230. Accessed 14 Nov 2016.
- Robinson, K. (2010). Changing education paradigms. Accessed 14 Nov 2016, from http://www.ted.com/talks/ken_robinson_changing_education_paradigms
- Sloan Consortium. (2007). Blending in the extent and promise of blended education in the United States. http://onlinelearningconsortium.org/publications/survey/blended06. Accessed 14 Nov 2016.
- Stacey, E., & Gerbic, P. (2008). Success factors for blended learning. In Hello! Where are you in the landscape of educational technology? Preceedings ascilite Melbourne 2009. http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/melbourne08/procs/stacey.pdf. Accessed 14 Nov 2016.
- Taillefer de Haya, L. (2015). A business English course in the digital era: Design and analysis. In R. Muñoz-Luna & L. Taillefer (Eds.), Information and communication technologies in english for specific purposes. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
- The Clayton Christensen Institute. (n.d.). Blended learning model definitions. http://www.christenseninstitute.org/blended-learning-definitions-and-models/. Accessed 14 Nov 2016.
- Van Patten, B., & Cadierno, T. (1993/2011). Input processing and second language acquisition: A role for instruction. In L. Ortega (Ed.), Second language acquisition. Critical concepts in linguistics (Vol. VI, pp. 101–120). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- VARK Research and Statistics. (2014). http://www.vark-learn.com/english/page.asp?p=research. Accessed 14 Nov 2016.
- Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in the society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Washburn, G. (1994). Working in the ZPD: Fossilized and nonfossilized nonnative speakers. In J. Lantolf & G. Appel (Eds.), Vygotskian approaches to second language research (pp. 69–82). Norwood: Ablex Publication Corporation.Google Scholar
- Wertsch, J. (Ed.). (1985). Culture, communication, and cognition: Vygotskian perspectives. Cambridge Cambridgeshire/New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Williams, J. (1999/2011). Learner-generated attention to form. In L. Ortega (Ed.), Second language acquisition. Critical concepts in linguistics (Vol. VI, pp. 68–98). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar