Fertile soils and productive land are limited—finite—resources. But there is an ever-growing demand for fertile land to feed a growing global population. Meeting this demand is becoming a massive global challenge due to two major factors. There is competition for productive land for other uses, such as wood, fiber, bioenergy, and urban growth. Then there is land degradation and the added risk of climate change impacts, such as droughts, floods, and the rising global temperature. The need to manage the trade-offs between rising demand and falling supply is pressing.