Image Evaluation Methods for PIV

  • Markus Raffel
  • Christian E. Willert
  • Fulvio Scarano
  • Christian J. Kähler
  • Steven T. Wereley
  • Jürgen Kompenhans


This chapter covers extensively the methods used to determine the flow velocity starting from the recordings of particle images. After an introduction to the concept of spatial correlation and Fourier methods, an overview of the different PIV evaluation methods is given. Ample discussions devoted to explain the details of the discrete spatial correlation operator in use for PIV interrogation. The main features associated to the FFT implementation (aliasing, displacement range limit and bias error) are discussed. Methods that enhance the correlation signal either in terms of robustness or of accuracy are surveyed. The discussion of ensemble correlation techniques and the use of single-pixel correlation in micro-PIV and macroscopic experiments is a novel addition to the present edition. A detailed description is given of the standard image interrogation based on multigrid image deformation, where the advantages in the treatment of complex flows are discussed as well as the issues in terms of resolution and numerical stability. Another new feature introduced in this chapter is the discussion of the recent developments of algorithms in use for PIV time series as obtained by high-speed PIV systems. Namely, the algorithms to perform Multi frame-PIV, Pyramid Correlation and Fluid Trajectory Correlation and Ensemble Evaluation are treated. Furthermore, a new section that discusses the methods used for individual particle tracking is introduced. The discussion describes the working principles of PTV for planar PIV. The potential of the latter techniques in terms of spatial resolution as well as their limits of applicability in terms of image density are presented.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Markus Raffel
    • 1
  • Christian E. Willert
    • 2
  • Fulvio Scarano
    • 3
  • Christian J. Kähler
    • 4
  • Steven T. Wereley
    • 5
  • Jürgen Kompenhans
    • 1
  1. 1. Institut für Aerodynamik und StrömungstechnikDeutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR)GöttingenGermany
  2. 2. Institut für AntriebstechnikDeutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR)KölnGermany
  3. 3.Department of Aerospace EngineeringDelft University of TechnologyDelftThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Institut für Strömungsmechanik und AerodynamikUniversität der Bundeswehr MünchenNeubibergGermany
  5. 5.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Birck Nanotech CenterPurdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA

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