The Most Important Fungal Diseases Associated with Some Useful Medicinal Plants

  • Faezehossadat Abtahi
  • Seydeh Lavin Nourani


When the ability of the cells of a plant to carry out one or more of these essential functions is interfered with by either a pathogenic organism or an adverse environmental factor, the activities of the cells are disrupted, the cells malfunction or die, and the plant becomes diseased. Tens of thousands of diseases affect cultivated and wild plants. Plant diseases are grouped according to the type of pathogen that causes the disease. All plants are attacked by some kinds of fungi, and each of the parasitic fungi can attack one or many kinds of plants. Fungi are small, generally microscopic, eukaryotic, usually filamentous, branched, spore-bearing organisms that lack chlorophyll. Fungi cause local or general symptoms on their hosts and such symptoms may occur separately or concurrently or may follow one another. Medicinal plants like other plants have specific fungal diseases. In this chapter, considering the importance of fungal diseases on this group of plants, we review some of the most important fungal diseases of the number of medicinal plants.


Medicinal plants Plant diseases Fungi Symptoms 


  1. Acharya SN, Thomas JE, Prasad R, Basu SK (2010) Diseases of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) and their control measures, with special emphasis on fungal diseases. In: Arya A, Perelló AE (eds) Management of fungal plant pathogens. CAB International, pp 245–262Google Scholar
  2. Acharya K, Chakraborty N, Chatterjee S, Basu SK (2014) Fungal diseases of fenugreek. In: Basu SK, Agoramoorthy G (eds) American journal of social issues and humanities, ISSN: 2276–6928Google Scholar
  3. Ahmed M, Ashraf M, Akbar G (1989) Poisonous and injurious range plants in Pakistan. Progressive Farming 9:41–44Google Scholar
  4. Al-Snafi AE (2014) The pharmacological importance and chemical constituents of arctium lappa. a review. Int J Pharm Res Scholars 3(1–1):663–670Google Scholar
  5. Asadiar LS, Rahmani F, Siami A (2013) Assessment of genetic diversity in the Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) based on ISSR genetic markers. Revista de Ciências Agroveterinárias 44:310–316Google Scholar
  6. Ash Cynthia L (2013) Verticillium wilt of trees and shrubs, disponibil pe
  7. Bansal RK, Gupta RK (2000) Evaluation of plant extracts against Fusarium oxysporum, wilt pathogen of fenugreek. Indian phytopathol 53(1):107–108Google Scholar
  8. Basu SK, Acharya SN, Thomas JE (2006) A report on powdery mildew infestations caused by Erysiphe polygoni D.C. In North American grown fenugreek. J Mycopathological Res 44(2): 253–256Google Scholar
  9. Benham SE, Houston Durrant T, Caudullo G, de Rigo D (2016) Taxus baccata in Europe: distribution, habitat, usage and threats. In: San-Miguel-Ayanz J, de Rigo D, Caudullo G, Houston Durrant T, Mauri A (eds.) European Atlas of Forest Tree Species. Publ. Off. EU, Luxembourg, pp e015921+Google Scholar
  10. Bown D (1995) Encyclopaedia of herbs and their uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31Google Scholar
  11. Bubici G (2015) First formal identification of Erysiphe heraclei causing powdery mildew on dill (Anethum graveolens) in Italy. New Dis Rep 31(22). 0588.2015.031.022CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bukvayova N (2007) Cryptocline taxicola (All.) Petr.—A new plant pathogen reported in Slovak Republic. Plant Prot Sci 43(3):122–124Google Scholar
  13. Common Names of Diseases, The American Phytopathological SocietyGoogle Scholar
  14. Coutuna O, Sumalan R, Sarateanu V, Paraschivu M, Durau C (2014) Diagnosis of Verticillium sp. Fungus from sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.). Res J Agric Sci 46(1)Google Scholar
  15. Dar ZA, Khan MH, Shabir A (2014) Status of different diseases on kalazira, Bunium persicum in Kashmir valley. Indian J Plant Prot 42(1):94–96Google Scholar
  16. Dar ZA, Zeerak N, Wani SA, Khan M (2011) Morpho-characterization of different populations of black caraway (Bunium persicum Bioss. Fedts) with respect to yield and yield traits across important growing sites of Kashmir Valley. J Agric Biotechnol Sustain Dev 3:60–64Google Scholar
  17. Faravani M, Khan MH, Gholami BA, Qazachian GHA, Saghi DA (2015) Variability studies of some black caraway (Bunium persicum Bioss. Fedts) accessions across important growing sites of Iran. Agric Forest 61(3):101–110Google Scholar
  18. Farjon A, Filer D (2013) An atlas of the world’s conifers: an analysis of their distribution, biogeography, diversity and conservation status. Brill, LeidenCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fonia A, White IR, White JML (2009) Allergic contact dermatitis to Elaeagnus plant (Oleaster). Contact Dermatitis 60:178–179. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0536.2008.01485.xCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Francis JK (2003) Capsicum annuum L. bird pepper (09 Sept 2013). Retrieved 30 Sept 2013Google Scholar
  21. Grigoryan NV, Aleksanyan AS, Nanagulyan SG (2015) Fungal diseases of medicinal plants in arid woodlands of Armenia. Chem Biol 2:31–33Google Scholar
  22. GRIN (2010) Germplasm resources information network. United States Department of Agriculture. 1997-01-22. Retrieved 2010-07-29
  23. Gucker C (2008) Frangula alnus. Fire Effects Information System
  24. Gupta V, John D, Razdan VK, Gupta SK (2012) First report of tuber rot disease of Kala Zeera caused by a member of the Fusarium solani species complex in India. Plant Dis 96:1067CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hamidpour R, Hamidpour S, Hamidpour M, Shahrali M, Sohraby M, Shahrali N, Hamidpour R (2017) Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.): from a variety of traditional medicinal applications to its novel roles as active antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti- mutagenic and analgestic agent. J Tradit Complement Med 7:24–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hampe A (2005) Fecundity Limits in Frangula alnus (Rhamnaceae) Relict Populations at the Species’ Southern Range Margin. Oecologia 143(3):377–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hashmi MH, Thrane U (1990) Mycotoxins and other secondary metabolites in spices of Fusarium isolated from seeds of capsicum, coriander and fenugreek. Pak J Bot 21:106–116Google Scholar
  28. Hassler J. Schoch W, Engesser R (2004) Auffällige Stammkrebse an Eiben (Taxus baccata L.) im Fürstenwald bei Chur (Graubünden, Schweiz). Schweiz Z Forstwes 155(9):400–403Google Scholar
  29. Hemery G, Simblet S (2014) The New Sylva: A Discourse of Forest and Orchard Trees for the Twenty-First Century (A&C Black)Google Scholar
  30. Hiremath PC, Prasad CKPS (1985) Vertical distribution of Rhizoctonia solani in soil and effect of culture filtrate on the rhizosphere mycoflora of fenugreek. J Soil Ecol 5(2):126–128Google Scholar
  31. Howell E, Mink I (1981) Viruses isolated from wild carrot and poison hemlock. Plant Dis 65:277–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Khare CP (2007) Indian Medicinal Plants: An Illustrated Dictionary Library of Congress. Springer-Verlag, Springer Science + Business Media LLC, Berlin/Heidelberg. Control Number: 2007922446, ISBN: 978-0-387-70637-5Google Scholar
  33. Khare MN, Tiwari SP, Sharma YK (2014) Disease problems in fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum- graceum L.) cultivation and their management for production of quality pathogen free seeds. Int J Seed Spices 4(2):11–17Google Scholar
  34. Kiseleva T, Chindyaeva L (2011) Biology of Oleaster (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.) at the Northeastern Limit of Its Range. Contemp Probl Ecol 4:218–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Koike ST, Glawe DA (2009) First report of powdery mildew of poison-hemlock caused by Erysiphe heraclei in North America. Plant Health Prog doi: 10.1094/PHP-2009-0312-01-BR
  36. Komaraiah M, Reddy SM (1986) Influence of humidity on seed deterioration of methi (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds by some seed-borne fungi. Indian J Mycol Plant Pathol 16:77–79Google Scholar
  37. Latham E (2009) The colourful world of chillies. Retrieved 08 Mar 2009
  38. Leifan X, Hyde Kevin D, Yang Q, Meiliang Y, Ma R, Tian CHM (2015) Cytospora species associated with canker disease of three anti-desertification plants in northwestern China. Phytotaxa 197(4):227–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lewandowski A, Burczyk J, Mejnartowicz L (1995) Genetic structure of english yew (Taxus baccata L.) in the Wierzchlas Reserve: implications for genetic conservation. For Ecol Manage 73:221–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Li TSC (2003) Taxonomy, natural distribution and botany. In: Li, TSC, Beveridge T (eds) Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.): production and utilization. NRC Research Press, Ottawa, ON, pp 7–11Google Scholar
  41. Linares JC (2013) Shifting limiting factors for population dynamics and conservation status of the endangered English yew (Taxus baccata L., Taxaceae). For Ecol Manage 291:119–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Liu M., Hambleton S (2013) Mycological progress, 12 (63)Google Scholar
  43. Mekkonen Y (1994) A survey of plants (potentially) toxic to livestock in the Ethiopian flora. Ethiop J Sci 17:9–32Google Scholar
  44. Mirski W (2008) Fungi colonizing shoots common Yew (Taxus baccata L.) in the Jagiellonian University Botanic Garden in Cracow. Acta Agrobotanica 61(1):191–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Motaleb MA (2011) Selected medicinal plants of Chittagong Hill Tracts. In: Hossain MK, Sobhan I, Khairul Alam M, Khan NA, Firuz R (eds), IUCN, (Bangladesh Country Office)Google Scholar
  46. Murphy HC (1935) Physiologic specialization in Puccinia coronata avenae, vol 433 of Technical Bulletins, United States Department of AgriculturGoogle Scholar
  47. NMPB (2008) Agro-techniques of selected medicinal plants (vol 1), National Medicinal Plants Board, Department of AYUSH, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Government of IndiaGoogle Scholar
  48. Palti J (1959) Oidiopsis diseases of vegetable and legume crops in Israel. Plant Dis Rep 43(2):221–226Google Scholar
  49. Parvaze AS, Zeerak NA, Singh P (2009) Kala zeera (Bunium persicum Bioss.): a Kashmirian high value crop. Turk J Biol 33:249–258Google Scholar
  50. Pepper Diseases (Fact Sheets and Information Bulletins), The Cornell Plant Pathology Vegetable Disease Web PageGoogle Scholar
  51. Petropoulos GA (1973) Agronomic genetic and chemical studies of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Ph.D. thesis, Bath University, UKGoogle Scholar
  52. Petropoulos GA (2002) Fenugreek—the genus Trigonella. Taylor and Francis, London and New York, pp 120–127Google Scholar
  53. Pierre D, Francis R (2000) Detection and isolation of soil fungi. Science Publishers Inc, Enfield, New HampshireGoogle Scholar
  54. Possessky SL, Moriarity WJ (2000) Glossy buckthorn, Rhamnus frangula L., a threat to riparian plant communities of the northern Allegheny plateau (USA). Nat Areas J 20(3):290–292Google Scholar
  55. Prasad R, Acharya S, Erickson S, Thomas J (2014) Identification of Cercospora leaf spot resistance among fenugreek accessions and characterization of the pathogen. Australian J Crop Sci 8(6):822–830Google Scholar
  56. Rouk HF, Mangesha H (1963) Fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum L.). Its relationship, geography and economic importance. Experimental Station Bulletin of the Empirical Ethiopian Cooperative of Agriculture and Mechanical Arts 20Google Scholar
  57. Rousi A (1971) The genus Hippophae L., a taxonomic study. Ann Botanici Fenn 8:177–227Google Scholar
  58. Ruan CJ, Rumpunen K, Nybom H (2013) Advances in improvement of quality and resistance of a multipurpose crop: sea buckthorn. Crit Rev Biotechnol 33(2):126–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Rushforth K (1999) Trees of Britain and Europe. Collins ISBN 0-00-220013-9Google Scholar
  60. Saboonchian F, Jamei R, Hosseini Sarghein S (2014) Phenolic and flavonoid content of Elaeagnus angustifolia L. (leaf and flower). Avicenna J phytomedicine 4:231–238Google Scholar
  61. Sahan Y, Dundar AN, Aydin E, Kilci A, Dulger D, Kaplan FB, Gocmen D, Celik G (2013) Characteristics of cookies supplemented with oleaster (Elaeagnus ngustifolia L.) Flour. I physicochemical, sensorial and textural properties. J Agric 5:160–168Google Scholar
  62. Silva NCC, Fernandes Junior A (2010) Biological properties of medicinal plants: a review of their antimicrobial activity. J Venomous Anim Toxins including Trop Dis 16(3):402–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Strouts RG, Winter TG (1994) Diagnosis of ill- health in trees (HMSO), For Forestry Commission, London. pp X + 307Google Scholar
  64. Suryakumar G, Gupta A (2011) Medicinal and therapeutic potential of Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L). J Ethnopharmacol 138:268–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Taheri JB, Anbari F, Maleki Z, Boostani S, Zarghi A, Pouralibaba F (2010) Efficacy of Elaeagnus angustifolia topical gel in the treatment of symptomatic oral lichen planus. J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospects 4:29–32Google Scholar
  66. Thomas PA, Polwart A (2003) Taxus baccata L. biological flora of the British Isles 229. J Ecol 91:489–524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Vetter J (2004) Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum L.). Food Chem Toxicol 42:1373–1382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Walker JC (1952) Diseases of vegetable crops. McGraw-Hill Book Co Inc, LondonGoogle Scholar
  69. Wani SA, Kumar P (2016) Fenugreek: areview on its nutraceutical properties and utilization in various food products. J Saudi Soc Agric Sci (ARTICLE IN PRESS) xxx, xxx–xxxGoogle Scholar
  70. Wulf A, Pehl L (2002) Needle disease on Taxus baccata caused by Cryptocline taxicola. In: Proceedings IUFRO Working Party, Shoot and Foliage Diseases, Hyytiala, pp 198–201Google Scholar
  71. Zecchin B, Caudullo G, de Rigo D (2016) Frangula alnus in Europe: distribution, habitat, usage and threats. In: San-Miguel- Ayanz J, de Rigo D, Caudullo G, Houston Durrant T, Mauri A (eds) European Atlas of Forest Tree Species. Publ. Off. EU, Luxembourg, pp. e019ee2+Google Scholar
  72. Zendehdel M, Torabi Z, Hassanpour S (2015) Antinociceptive mechanisms of Bunium persicum essential oil in the mouse writhing test: role of opioidergic and histaminergic systems. Vet Med 60(2):63–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Zimmer RC (1984) Cercospora leaf spot and powdery mildew of fenugreek, a potential new crop in Canada. Can Plant Dis Surv 64(2):33–35Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Medicinal Plants, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural ResourcesArak UniversityArakIran
  2. 2.Plant Pathology Department, Faculty of AgricultureTarbiat Modares UniversityTehranIran

Personalised recommendations