Advertisement

Plant Respiration Responses to Elevated CO2: An Overview from Cellular Processes to Global Impacts

  • Nicholas G. Smith
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration book series (AIPH, volume 43)

Summary

Earth is currently going through a period of unprecedented, exponential change. As a result, the world’s flora are experiencing novel environmental conditions. One of the most steady, ongoing global changes is the rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Atmospheric CO2 levels are the highest they’ve been in 650,000 years and are continuing to increase. The rate at which land plants take up and release CO2 through photosynthesis and respiration, respectively, will significantly influence the trajectory of atmospheric CO2 change in the future. This chapter explores the physiological mechanisms underlying the response of plant CO2 release (i.e., respiration) to changing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Both short- (seconds to minutes) and long- (weeks to years) term responses are discussed. Over relatively short timescales, CO2 can alter respiratory physiology, but counterbalancing responses may result in no change in gross respiration. Longer-term responses of respiration to CO2 are likely to be determined by changes in the supply of respiratory substrates and demand for respiratory products. Additionally, the interaction between respiration responses to CO2 and other global change factors, such as temperature, precipitation, and nitrogen, are considered. In many cases, results from experiments examining these interactions indicate weaker responses than theory might suggest. Finally, the representation of plant respiration in the large-scale models used to project climate change is examined. This section highlights the simplicity of current model representations, which do not explicitly include direct responses of plant respiration to elevated CO2 . Recommendations for model improvement are suggested. It is essential that plant physiologists and modelers work together to improve the representation of these processes in large-scale models in order to increase confidence and reduce uncertainty in projections of future biosphere-atmosphere CO2 feedbacks.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the United States Department of Agriculture – National Institute of Food and Agriculture (2015-67003-23485), the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NNX13AN65H), and the Purdue Climate Change Research Center.

References

  1. Abadie C, Boex-Fontvieille ERA, Carroll AJ, Tcherkez G (2016) In vivo stoichiometry of photorespiratory metabolism. Nat Plants 2:15220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ainsworth EA, Long SP (2005) What have we learned from 15 years of free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE)? A meta-analytic review of the responses of photosynthesis, canopy. New Phytol 165:351–371PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ainsworth EA, Rogers A, Vodkin LO, Walter A, Schurr U (2006) The effects of elevated CO2 concentration on soybean gene expression. An analysis of growing and mature leaves. Plant Physiol 142:135–147PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alexander K, Easterbrook SM (2015) The software architecture of climate models, a graphical comparison of CMIP5 and EMICAR5 configurations. Geosci Model Dev 8:1221–1232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Amthor JS (1984) The role of maintenance respiration in plant growth. Plant Cell Environ 7:561–569Google Scholar
  6. Amthor JS (1995) Terrestrial higher-plant response to increasing atmospheric [CO2] in relation to the global carbon cycle. Glob Chang Biol 1:243–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Amthor JS (2000) The McCree–de Wit–Penning de Vries–Thornley respiration paradigms: 30 years later. Ann Bot-London 86:1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Aranjuelo I, Erice G, Sanz-Sáez A, Abadie C, Gilard F, Gil-Quintana E et al (2015) Differential CO2 effect on primary carbon metabolism of flag leaves in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) Plant Cell Environ 38:2780–2794PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Atkin OK, Tjoelker MG (2003) Thermal acclimation and the dynamic response of plant respiration to temperature. Trends Plant Sci 8:343–351PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Atkin OK, Bruhn D, Hurry VM, Tjoelker MG (2005) The hot and the cold, unravelling the variable response of plant respiration to temperature. Funct Plant Biol 32:87–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Atkin OK, Atkinson LJ, Fisher RA, Campbell CD, Zaragoza-Castells J, Pitchford JW, Woodward FI, Hurry V (2008) Using temperature-dependent changes in leaf scaling relationships to quantitatively account for thermal acclimation of respiration in a coupled global climate-vegetation model. Glob Chang Biol 14:2709–2726Google Scholar
  12. Atkin OK, Meir P, Turnbull MH (2014) Improving representation of leaf respiration in large-scale predictive climate–vegetation models. New Phytol 202:743–748PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Atkin OK, Bloomfield KJ, Reich PB, Tjoelker MG, Asner GP, Bonal D et al (2015) Global variability in leaf respiration in relation to climate, plant functional types and leaf traits. New Phytol 206:614–636PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ayub G, Smith RA, Tissue DT, Atkin OK (2011) Impacts of drought on leaf respiration in darkness and light in Eucalyptus saligna exposed to industrial-age atmospheric CO2 and growth temperature. New Phytol 190:1003–1018PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ayub G, Zaragoza-Castells J, Griffin KL, Atkin OK (2014) Leaf respiration in darkness and in the light under pre-industrial, current and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Plant Sci 226:120–130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Azcón-Bieto J, Osmond CB (1983) Relationship between photosynthesis and respiration. The effect of carbohydrate status on the rate of CO2 production by respiration in darkened and illuminated wheat leaves. Plant Physiol 71:574–581PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Azcon-Bieto J, Gonzalez-Meler MA, Doherty W, Drake BG (1994) Acclimation of respiratory O2 uptake in green tissues of field-grown native species after long-term exposure to elevated atmospheric CO2. Plant Physiol 106:1163–1168PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Beevers H (1974) Conceptual developments in metabolic control: 1924–1974. Plant Physiol 54:437–442PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bingham IJ, Farrar JF (1988) Regulation of respiration in roots of barley. Physiol Plant 73:278–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bouma T, Visser RD, Janssen J, Md K, Pv L, Lambers H (1994) Respiratory energy requirements and rate of protein turnover in vivo determined by the use of an inhibitor of protein synthesis and a probe to assess its effect. Physiol Plant 92:585–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Breeze V, Elston J (1978) Some effects of temperature and substrate content upon respiration and the carbon balance of field beans (Vicia faba L.) Ann Bot-London 42:863–876CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bunce JA (2005) Response of respiration of soybean leaves grown at ambient and elevated carbon dioxide concentrations to day-to-day variation in light and temperature under field conditions. Ann Bot-London 95:1059–1066CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cheesman AW, Winter K (2013) Growth response and acclimation of CO2 exchange characteristics to elevated temperatures in tropical tree seedlings. J Exp Bot 64:3817–3828PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cowan IR, Farquhar GD (1977) Stomatal function in relation to leaf metabolism and environment. In: Jennings DH (ed) Integration of activity in the higher plant. University Press, Cambridge, pp 471–505Google Scholar
  25. Cox PM, Betts RA, Jones CD, Spall SA, Totterdell IJ (2000) Acceleration of global warming due to carbon-cycle feedbacks in a coupled climate model. Nature 408:184–187PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Crous KY, Reich PB, Hunter MD, Ellsworth DS (2010) Maintenance of leaf N controls the photosynthetic CO2 response of grassland species exposed to 9 years of free-air CO2 enrichment. Glob Chang Biol 16:2076–2088CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Douce R, Bourguignon J, Neuburger M, Rébeillé F (2001) The glycine decarboxylase system, a fascinating complex. Trends Plant Sci 6:167–176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Drake BG, Gonzalez-Meler MA, Long SP (1997) More efficient plants, a consequence of rising atmospheric CO2? Annu Rev Plant Physiol 48:609–639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Drake BG, Azcon-Bieto J, Berry J, Bunce J, Dijkstra P, Farrar J et al (1999) Does elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration inhibit mitochondrial respiration in green plants? Plant Cell Environ 22:649–657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Duan H, Amthor JS, Duursma RA, O’Grady AP, Choat B, Tissue DT (2013) Carbon dynamics of eucalypt seedlings exposed to progressive drought in elevated [CO2] and elevated temperature. Tree Physiol 33:779–792PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ellsworth DS, Reich PB, Naumburg ES, Koch GW, Kubiske ME, Smith SD (2004) Photosynthesis, carboxylation and leaf nitrogen responses of 16 species to elevated pCO2 across four free-air CO2 enrichment experiments in forest, grassland and desert. Glob Chang Biol 10:2121–2138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Farquhar G, von Caemmerer S, Berry J (1980) A biochemical model of photosynthetic CO2 assimilation in leaves of C3 species. Planta 149:78–90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Farrar JF, Williams ML (1991) The effects of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide and temperature on carbon partitioning, source-sink relations and respiration. Plant Cell Environ 14:819–830CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Flexas J, Bota J, Galmes J, Medrano H, Ribas-Carbo M (2006) Keeping a positive carbon balance under adverse conditions, responses of photosynthesis and respiration to water stress. Physiol Plant 127:343–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Friedlingstein P, Meinshausen M, Arora VK, Jones CD, Anav A, Liddicoat SK, Knutti R (2013) Uncertainties in CMIP5 climate projections due to carbon cycle feedbacks. J Clim 27:511–526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fung IY, Doney SC, Lindsay K, John J (2005) Evolution of carbon sinks in a changing climate. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:11201–11206PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Galmes J, Ribas-Carbo M, Medrano H, Flexas J (2007) Response of leaf respiration to water stress in Mediterranean species with different growth forms. J Arid Environ 68:206–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gauthier PPG, Crous KY, Ayub G, Duan H, Weerasinghe LK, Ellsworth DS et al (2014) Drought increases heat tolerance of leaf respiration in Eucalyptus globulus saplings grown under both ambient and elevated atmospheric [CO2] and temperature. J Exp Bot 65:6471–6485PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gifford RM (1995) Whole plant respiration and photosynthesis of wheat under increased CO2 concentration and temperature, Long-term vs short-term distinctions for modeling. Glob Chang Biol 1:385–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gifford RM (2003) Plant respiration in productivity models, conceptualisation, representation and issues for global terrestrial carbon-cycle research. Funct Plant Biol 30:171–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gimeno TE, Sommerville KE, Valladares F, Atkin OK (2010) Homeostasis of respiration under drought and its important consequences for foliar carbon balance in a drier climate, insights from two contrasting Acacia species. Funct Plant Biol 37:323–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gonzàlez-Meler MA, Siedow JN (1999) Direct inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory enzymes by elevated CO2, does it matter at the tissue or whole-plant level? Tree Physiol 19:253–259PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gonzalez-Meler MA, Miquel R-C, Siedow JN, Drake BG (1996) Direct inhibition of plant mitochondrial respiration by elevated CO2. Plant Physiol 112:1349–1355PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gonzàlez-Meler M, Giles L, Thomas R, Siedow J (2001) Metabolic regulation of leaf respiration and alternative pathway activity in response to phosphate supply. Plant Cell Environ 24:205–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gonzalez-Meler MA, Taneva L, Trueman RJ (2004) Plant respiration and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, cellular responses and global significance. Ann Bot-London 94:647–656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Griffin KL, Heskel M (2013) Breaking the cycle, how light, CO2 and O2 affect plant respiration. Plant Cell Environ 36:498–500PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Griffin KL, Turnbull MH (2013) Light saturated RuBP oxygenation by Rubisco is a robust predictor of light inhibition of respiration in Triticum aestivum L. Plant Biol 15:769–775PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Griffin KL, Anderson OR, Gastrich MD, Lewis JD, Lin G, Schuster W et al (2001) Plant growth in elevated CO2 alters mitochondrial number and chloroplast fine structure. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:2473–2478PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hamilton JG, Thomas RB, Delucia EH (2001) Direct and indirect effects of elevated CO2 on leaf respiration in a forest ecosystem. Plant Cell Environ 24:975–982CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hartley IP, Armstrong AF, Murthy R, Barron-Gafford G, Ineson P, Atkin OK (2006) The dependence of respiration on photosynthetic substrate supply and temperature, integrating leaf, soil and ecosystem measurements. Glob Chang Biol 12:1954–1968CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hendrey GR, Miglietta F (2006) FACE technology, past, present, and future. In: Nösberger J, Long SP, Norby RJ, Stitt M, Hendrey GR, Blum H (eds) Managed ecosystems and CO2. Case studies, processes, and perspectives. Springer, Berlin/Heidleberg, pp 15–43Google Scholar
  52. Heskel MA, O’Sullivan OS, Reich PB, Tjoelker MG, Weerasinghe LK, Penillard A et al (2016) Convergence in the temperature response of leaf respiration across biomes and plant functional types. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 113:3832–3837PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hoefnagel MHN, Atkin OK, Wiskich JT (1998) Interdependence between chloroplasts and mitochondria in the light and the dark. BB -Bioenergetics 1366:235–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hsiao TC (1973) Plant responses to water stress. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 24:519–570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. IPCC (2013) Climate change 2013, the physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fifth assessment resport of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  56. Jahnke S (2001) Atmospheric CO2 concentration does not directly affect leaf respiration in bean or poplar. Plant Cell Environ 24:1139–1151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Jahnke S, Krewitt M (2002) Atmospheric CO2 concentration may directly affect leaf respiration measurement in tobacco, but not respiration itself. Plant Cell Environ 25:641–651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Keenan TF, Hollinger DY, Bohrer G, Dragoni D, Munger JW, Schmid HP, Richardson AD (2013) Increase in forest water-use efficiency as atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations rise. Nature 499:324–327PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. King AW, Gunderson CA, Post WM, Weston DJ, Wullschleger SD (2006) Plant respiration in a warmer world. Science 312:536–537PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Körner C, Pelaez-Riedl S, van Bel A (1995) CO2 responsiveness of plants, a possible link to phloem loading. Plant Cell Environ 18:595–600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kroner Y, Way DA (2016) Carbon fluxes acclimate more strongly to elevated growth temperatures than to elevated CO2 concentrations in a northern conifer. Glob Chang Biol 22:2913–2928PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lambers H, Szaniawski RK, Visser R (1983) Respiration for growth, maintenance and ion uptake. An evaluation of concepts, methods, values and their significance. Physiol Plant 58:556–563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Leakey ADB, Ainsworth EA, Bernacchi CJ, Rogers A, Long SP, Ort DR (2009a) Elevated CO2 effects on plant carbon, nitrogen, and water relations, six important lessons from FACE. J Exp Bot 60:2859–2876PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Leakey ADB, Xu F, Gillespie KM, McGrath JM, Ainsworth EA, Ort DR (2009b) Genomic basis for stimulated respiration by plants growing under elevated carbon dioxide. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:3597–3602PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Lee TD, Tjoelker MG, Ellsworth DS, Reich PB (2001) Leaf gas exchange responses of 13 prairie grassland species to elevated CO2 and increased nitrogen supply. New Phytol 150:405–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lee TD, Barrott SH, Reich PB (2011) Photosynthetic responses of 13 grassland species across 11 years of free-air CO2 enrichment is modest, consistent and independent of N supply. Glob Chang Biol 17:2893–2904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lehmeier CA, Wild M, Schnyder H (2013) Nitrogen stress affects the turnover and size of nitrogen pools supplying leaf growth in a grass. Plant Physiol 162:2095–2105PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Leuzinger S, Thomas QR (2011) How do we improve Earth system models? Integrating Earth system models, ecosystem models, experiments and long-term data. New Phytol 191:15–18PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Leuzinger S, Luo Y, Beier C, Dieleman W, Vicca S, Körner C (2011) Do global change experiments overestimate impacts on terrestrial ecosystems? Trends Ecol Evol 26:236–241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Long SP, Ainsworth EA, Rogers A, Ort DR (2004) Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide, plants FACE the future. Annu Rev Plant Biol 55:591–628PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Meinshausen M, Smith S, Calvin K, Daniel J, Kainuma M, Lamarque JF et al (2011) The RCP greenhouse gas concentrations and their extensions from 1765 to 2300. Clim Chang 109:213–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Morgan JA, Pataki DE, Körner C, Clark H, Grosso SJ, Grünzweig JM et al (2004) Water relations in grassland and desert ecosystems exposed to elevated atmospheric CO2. Oecologia 140:11–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Morgan JA, LeCain DR, Pendall E, Blumenthal DM, Kimball BA, Carrillo Y et al (2011) C4 grasses prosper as carbon dioxide eliminates desiccation in warmed semi-arid grassland. Nature 476:202–205PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Norby RJ, Warren JM, Iversen CM, Medlyn BE, McMurtrie RE (2010) CO2 enhancement of forest productivity constrained by limited nitrogen availability. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:19368–19373PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Prinn RG (2013) Development and application of earth system models. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:3673–3680PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Raddatz T, Reick C, Knorr W, Kattge J, Roeckner E, Schnur R et al (2007) Will the tropical land biosphere dominate the climate–carbon cycle feedback during the twenty-first century? Clim Dynam 29:565–574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Reich PB, Hungate BA, Luo YQ (2006) Carbon-nitrogen interactions in terrestrial ecosystems in response to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 37:611–636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Ribas-Carbo M, Berry JA, Yakir D, Giles L, Robinson SA, Lennon AM, Siedow JN (1995) Electron partitioning between the cytochrome and alternative pathways in plant mitochondria. Plant Physiol 109:829–837PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Ryan MG (1991) Effects of climate change on plant respiration. Ecol Appl 1:157–167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Shapiro JB, Griffin KL, Lewis JD, Tissue DT (2004) Response of Xanthium strumarium leaf respiration in the light to elevated CO2 concentration, nitrogen availability and temperature. New Phytol 162:377–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Siegenthaler U, Stocker TF, Monnin E, Lüthi D, Schwander J, Stauffer B et al (2005) Stable carbon cycle-climate relationship during the late Pleistocene. Science 310:1313–1317PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Slot M, Kitajima K (2014) General patterns of acclimation of leaf respiration to elevated temperatures across biomes and plant types. Oecologia 177:885–900PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Slot M, Zaragoza-Castells J, Atkin OK (2008) Transient shade and drought have divergent impacts on the temperature sensitivity of dark respiration in leaves of Geum urbanum. Funct Plant Biol 35:1135–1146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Smith NG, Dukes JS (2013) Plant respiration and photosynthesis in global-scale models, incorporating acclimation to temperature and CO2. Glob Chang Biol 19:45–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Tcherkez G, Cornic G, Bligny R, Gout E, Ghashghaie J (2005) In Vivo respiratory metabolism of illuminated leaves. Plant Physiol 138:1596–1606PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Tcherkez G, Bligny R, Gout E, Mahé A, Hodges M, Cornic G (2008) Respiratory metabolism of illuminated leaves depends on CO2 and O2 conditions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:797–802PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Tcherkez G, Mahé A, Gauthier P, Mauve C, Gout E, Bligny R, Cornic G, Hodges M (2009) In folio respiratory fluxomics revealed by 13C isotopic labeling and H/D isotope effects highlight the noncyclic nature of the tricarboxylic acid cycle in illuminated leaves. Plant Physiol 151:620–630PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Tcherkez G, Mahé A, GuéRard F, Boex-Fontvieille ERA, Gout E, Lamothe M, Barbour MM, Bligny R (2012) Short-term effects of CO2 and O2 on citrate metabolism in illuminated leaves. Plant Cell Environ 35:2208–2220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Tissue DT, Lewis JD, Wullschleger SD, Amthor JS, Griffin KL, Anderson OR (2002) Leaf respiration at different canopy positions in sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) grown in ambient and elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide in the field. Tree Physiol 22:1157–1166PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Tjoelker MG, Oleksyn J, Reich PB (1999a) Acclimation of respiration to temperature and CO2 in seedlings of boreal tree species in relation to plant size and relative growth rate. Glob Chang Biol 5:679–691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Tjoelker MG, Reich PB, Oleksyn J (1999b) Changes in leaf nitrogen and carbohydrates underlie temperature and CO2 acclimation of dark respiration in five boreal tree species. Plant Cell Environ 22:767–778CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Tjoelker MG, Oleksyn J, Reich PB (2001) Modeling respiration of vegetation, evidence for a general temperature-dependent Q(10). Glob Chang Biol 7:223–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Van Oijen M, Schapendonk A, Hoglind M (2010) On the relative magnitudes of photosynthesis, respiration, growth and carbon storage in vegetation. Ann Bot-London 105:793–797CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. van Vuuren DP, Edmonds J, Kainuma M, Riahi K, Thomson A, Hibbard K et al (2011) The representative concentration pathways, an overview. Clim Chang 109:5–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Wang X, Lewis JD, Tissue DT, Seemann JR, Griffin KL (2001) Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration on leaf dark respiration of Xanthium strumarium in light and in darkness. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:2479–2484PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Wang X, Anderson OR, Griffin KL (2004) Chloroplast numbers, mitochondrion numbers and carbon assimilation physiology of Nicotiana sylvestris as affected by CO2 concentration. Environ Exp Bot 51:21–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Way DA, Yamori W (2014) Thermal acclimation of photosynthesis, on the importance of adjusting our definitions and accounting for thermal acclimation of respiration. Photosynth Res 119:89–100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Williams JHH, Farrar JF (1990) Control of barley root respiration. Physiol Plant 79:259–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Wright SJ, Muller-Landau HC, Schipper JAN (2009) The future of tropical species on a warmer planet. Conserv Biol 23:1418–1426PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Xu Z, Zheng X, Wang Y, Wang Y, Huang Y, Zhu J (2006) Effect of free-air atmospheric CO2 enrichment on dark respiration of rice plants (Oryza sativa L.) Agric Ecosyst Environ 115:105–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Zha T, Ryyppö A, Wang K-Y, Kellomäki S (2001) Effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentration and temperature on needle growth, respiration and carbohydrate status in field-grown Scots pines during the needle expansion period. Tree Physiol 21:1279–1287PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Ziehn T, Kattge J, Knorr W, Scholze M (2011) Improving the predictability of global CO2 assimilation rates under climate change. Geophys Res Lett 38:L10404CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesTexas Tech UniversityLubbockUSA

Personalised recommendations