Advertisement

Chinese Views of the Cyber Industrial Complex

  • Greg Austin
Chapter
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Cybersecurity book series (BRIEFSCYBER)

Abstract

This chapter outlines the government’s view of national policy for S&T and industrial development in the field of cybersecurity. It draws on a roadmap for S&T development developed in 2011 by the Chinese Academy of Sciences. It documents vigorous leadership engagement in these issues beginning in 2016, and their policy imperative of indigenization. It discussed the emergence of the private sector in cybersecurity relative to the better established state-owned sector.

Keywords

Cybersecurity S&T Political economy Command economy State-owned enterprise Private sector Market economy Indigenization Globalization Quantum computing Artificial intelligence Operating system Foreign corporations Timeline Core technologies Industry trends 

References

  1. Austin G (2014) Cyber Policy in China. Polity, Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  2. Aqniu (2015) China cybersecurity companies top 50 hits. 27 Oct 2015. http://www.aqniu.com/industry/11169.html
  3. Austin G, Meng F (2018) Profiles of cyber security companies in China. Discussion brief #5. Australian Centre for Cyber Security. University of New South WalesGoogle Scholar
  4. Bao X, Xu X, Li C, Yuan Z, Lu C, Pan J (2012) Quantum teleportation between remote atomic-ensemble quantum memories. Cornell University Library. submitted 13 Nov 2012. http://arxiv.org/abs/1211.2892CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Biercuk M, Fontaine R (2017) The leap into quantum technology: a primer for national security professionals. In: War on the rocks. 17 Nov 2017. https://warontherocks.com/2017/11/leap-quantum-technology-primer-national-security-professionals/
  6. CAICT (2016) Research on the competitiveness of global cyber and information security businesses. The Security Research Institute of China Academy of Telecommunication Research. In Chinese. In: Hui Z, Tan Q (eds) Annual report on development of cyberspace security. Social Sciences Academic Press, Beijing, pp. 176–200Google Scholar
  7. CAICT (2017) White paper on cybersecurity industry (2017), In Chinese. China Acad Inf Commun Technol. Sept 2017. http://www.caict.ac.cn/kxyj/qwfb/bps/201709/P020170919308653198647.pdf
  8. Carsten P (2015) China drops leading tech brands for certain state purchases. Reuters. 27 Feb 2015. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-tech-exclusive/china-drops-leading-tech-brands-for-certain-state-purchases-idUSKBN0LV08720150227
  9. China.com (2015) Vanguard of national information security. In Chinese. 22 Jan 2015. http://tech.china.com/news/it/11146618/20150122/19236241.html
  10. Cyran R (2014) China’s ‘De-IOE’ campaign takes a bite out of tech. Reuters. 16 July 2014. http://www.reuters.com/article/idUS122258395120140716
  11. DRC and World Bank (2013) China 2030: building a modern, harmonious, and creative society World Bank Publications Development Research Centre of the State Council Google Scholar
  12. Holmes RM, Li H, Hitt MA, DeGhetto K, and Sutton T (2016) The Effects of Location and MNC Attributes on MNCs’ Establishment of Foreign R&D Centers: Evidence from China. In: Long Range Planning. 49(5):594–613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Huatai Securities (2015) Research report on the cyber security Industry. In Chinese. Tencent. 16 Sept 2015. http://new.qq.com/cmsn/20150917031679
  14. Hui Z, Tan Q (2016) Cyberspace security in the era of data economy: global and Chinese contexts. In: Hui Z, Tan Q (eds) Annual report on development of cyberspace security in China. Social Sciences Academy Press. Blue Book, Beijing. (In Chinese). 1–16Google Scholar
  15. iiMedia (2017) 2016 China internet security research report. In Chinese. http://www.iimedia.cn/148999407414508836.pdf
  16. Li F (2017) Opening the Google AI China center. Google blog. 13 Dec 2017. https://www.blog.google/topics/google-asia/google-ai-china-center/
  17. Li G (ed) (2011) Information science and technology in China: a roadmap to 2050. Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Science Press, Springer, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  18. Li J (2015) Network information security challenges and relevant strategic thinking as highlighted by “PRISM”. In: Huang Z Sun X Luo J, Wang J (eds) Cloud computing and security. Lecture notes in computer science, vol 9483, pp 147–156. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Li X, Qin M, Zhang Y, Nan H, Qu Y, Zheng P (2014) China pulling the plug on IBM, Oracle, others. MarketWatch. 26 June 2014. http://www.marketwatch.com/story/china-pulling-the-plug-on-ibm-oracle-others-2014-06-26
  20. Liang C (2016) Network information security shift ‘to foreign capital’. Caijing 12 Aug 2016. In Chinese, Foreign investment in China, p 8. http://magazine.caijing.com.cn/20160812/4161944.shtmlGoogle Scholar
  21. Liao R (2016) Dysfunction, Incentives, and Trade: Rehabilitating US-China Cyber Relations. In: Georgetown Journal of International Affairs. 17(3):38–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lindsay JR (2017) Restrained by design: the political economy of cybersecurity. Digital Policy, Regul Gov 19(6):493–514.  https://doi.org/10.1108/DPRG-05-2017-0023CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lu C (2016) China’s emerging cyberspace strategy. The Diplomat. 24 May 2016. https://thediplomat.com/2016/05/chinas-emerging-cyberspace-strategy/
  24. Lu Y (2010) Science & technology in China: a roadmap to 2050. Strategic General Report of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, SpringerCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mandiant (2013) APT1: exposing one of China’s cyber espionage units. https://www.fireeye.com/content/dam/fireeye-www/services/pdfs/mandiant-apt1-report.pdf
  26. Mathew J (2014a) Cisco’s China equipment sales dented by NSA spying scandal. International Business Times, California. 1 July 2014. http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/cisco-china-sales-nsa-spying-scandal-522159
  27. Mathew J (2014b) IBM sued over China sales decline due to NSA ‘connection’. Reuters. 1 July 2014. http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/edward-snowden-nsa-scandal-ibm-lawsuit-530150
  28. Marks J (2015) U.N. body agrees to U.S. norms in cyberspace. Politico. 9 July 2015. http://www.politico.com/story/2015/07/un-body-agrees-to-us-norms-in-cyberspace-119900
  29. Microsoft Blog (2017) Announcing windows 10 China government edition and the new surface pro. Microsoft Blog. 23 May 2017. https://blogs.microsoft.com/blog/2017/05/23/announcing-windows-10-china-government-edition-new-surface-pro/
  30. Nordum A (2017) China demonstrates quantum encryption by hosting a video call. IEEE Spectrum, 3 Oct 2017. https://spectrum.ieee.org/tech-talk/telecom/security/china-successfully-demonstrates-quantum-encryption-by-hosting-a-video-call
  31. NRC (2010) S&T strategies of six countries: implications for the United States. National Research Council. National Academies Press. https://www.nap.edu/read/12920/chapter/6
  32. Pasick A (2015) It’s official—China is blacklisting Apple, Cisco, and other US tech companies. Quartz. https://qz.com/351256/its-official-china-is-blacklisting-apple-Cisco-and-other-us-tech-companies/
  33. Patton D (2015) U.S. tech firm Cisco to invest $10 billion in China expansion. Reuters. 18 June 2015. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-Cisco/u-s-tech-firm-Cisco-to-invest-10-billion-in-china-expansion-idUSKBN0OX1ZP20150617
  34. Reuters (2013) China to probe IBM, Oracle, EMC for security concerns—paper. 16 Aug 2013. http://www.reuters.com/article/china-ioe/china-to-probe-ibm-oracle-emc-for-security-concerns-paper-idUSL4N0GH06O20130816
  35. Russian Federation (2015) Order of the Russian Government on signing the agreement between the government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the People’s Republic of China on cooperation in the field of ensuring international information security. In Russian. 30 Apr 2015. http://government.ru/media/files/5AMAccs7mSlXgbff1Ua785WwMWcABDJw.pdf
  36. SCIO (2015) China’s military strategy. White paper. State Council Information Office. http://english.gov.cn/archive/white_paper/2015/05/27/content_281475115610833.htm
  37. Sinolink Securities (2017) Bright star stock analysis: significant advantages of the industry boom company, year-round business trends to improve. In Chinese. http://www.microbell.com/docdetail_2117399.html
  38. Sonnad N (2015) A first look at the Chinese operating system the government wants to replace Windows. Quartz. https://qz.com/505383/a-first-look-at-the-chinese-operating-system-the-government-wants-to-replace-windows/
  39. Tiezzi S (2015) New report highlights China’s cybersecurity nightmare. The Diplomat. http://thediplomat.com/2015/02/new-report-highlights-chinas-cybersecurity-nightmare/
  40. United Kingdom (2017) Matt Hancock’s cyber security speech at the Institute of Directors conference. 27 Mar 2017. https://www.gov.uk/government/speeches/matt-hancocks-cyber-security-speech-at-the-institute-of-directors-conference
  41. WEF (2016) Global information technology report 2016. World Economic Forum. http://www3.weforum.org/docs/GITR2016/WEF_GITR_Full_Report.pdf
  42. WEF (2011) Global information technology report 2010–2011. World Economic Forum. http://resource-cms.springer.com/springer-cms/rest/v1/content/36522/data/v3
  43. Wu Q (2016) Grasp the strategic opportunity to promote autonomy and control, to play the historical responsibility of network security. In Chinese. http://www.capco.org.cn/content/29706.shtml
  44. Xi J (2016) Speech at the work conference for cybersecurity and informatization, Posted on 19 Apr 2016, updated on 26 Apr 2016. https://chinacopyrightandmedia.wordpress.com/2016/04/19/speech-at-the-work-conference-for-cybersecurity-and-informatization/
  45. Xinhua (2016a) President Xi says China faces major science, technology ‘bottleneck’. 1 June 2016. http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2016-06/01/c_135402671.htm
  46. Xinhua (2016b) Xi sets targets for China’s science, technology progress. 30 May 2016. http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2016-05/30/c_135399655.htm
  47. Xinhua (2016c) President Xi’s speech on science, technology published. 2 June 2016. http://usa.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2016-06/02/content_25595722.htm
  48. Xinhuanet (2016) Digital stars in spotlight at World Internet Conference. Wuzhen. Available: http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2016-11/16/c_135835057.htm
  49. Xu Z et al (2016) High-performance computing environment: a review of twenty years of experiments in China. Natl Sci Rev 3(1):36–48, 1 Mar 2016.  https://doi.org/10.1093/nsr/nww001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Yu H (2017) Reading the 13th five-year plan: reflections on China’s ICT policy. Int J Commun 11(2017):1755–1774Google Scholar
  51. Zhang S (2016) China sets goals of informatization. CRI News. 28/07/2016. http://english.cri.cn/12394/2016/07/28/3821s935816.htm
  52. Zheng Z, Chen J, and Zheng G (2016) Typical modes and characteristics of reverse innovation: a multiple cases study on five enterprises operated in China. In: International Journal of Technology Management. 72(1–3):43–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Australian Centre for Cyber SecurityUniversity of New South WalesCanberraAustralia

Personalised recommendations