Advertisement

Origins of Globalization in the Framework of the Afroeurasian World-System History

  • Leonid E. GrininEmail author
  • Andrey V. Korotayev
Chapter
Part of the World-Systems Evolution and Global Futures book series (WSEGF)

Abstract

The formation of the Afroeurasian world-system was one of the crucial points of social evolution, starting from which the social evolution rate and effectiveness increased dramatically. In the present chapter we analyze processes and scales of global integration in historical perspective, starting with the Agrarian Revolution. We connect the main phases of historical globalization with the processes of the development of the Afroeurasian world-system. In the framework of the Afroeurasian world-system the integration began a few thousand years BCE. In this world-system the continental and supracontinental links became rather developed long before the Great Geographic Discoveries and thus, they could quite be denoted as global (albeit in a somehow limited sense). As some researchers are still inclined to underestimate the scale of those links in the pre-Industrial era, it appears necessary to provide additional empirical support for our statement. It also turns necessary to apply a special methodology (which necessitated the use of the world-system approach). We analyze some versions of periodization of globalization history. We also propose our own periodization of globalization history using as its basis the growing scale of intersocietal links as an indicator of the level of globalization development.

Keywords

Globalization Social evolution World-systems Afroeurasian world-system World System Global communication Cycles of political hegemony Agrarian revolution Industrial revolution Technologies 

References

  1. Abu-Lughod, J. (1989). Before European hegemony: The world system AD 1250–1350. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Amin, S., Arrighi, G., Frank, A. G., & Wallerstein, I. (2006). Transforming the revolution: Social movements and the world-system. Delhi: Aakar.Google Scholar
  3. Arrighi, G., & Silver, B. J. (1999). Chaos and governance in the modern world system. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  4. Bader, N. O. (1989). The ancient agriculturalists of the Northern Mesopotamia. Moscow: Nauka. In Russian (Бадер Н. О. Древнейшие земледельцы Северной Месопотамии. М.: Наука).Google Scholar
  5. Barfield, T. J. (1989). The perilous frontier. London: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  6. Barkan, O., & McCarthy, J. (1975). The price revolution of the sixteenth century: A turning point in the economic history of the Near East. International Journal of Middle East Studies, 6(1), 3–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barkin, S. J., & Cronin, B. (1994). The state and the nation: Changing norms and the rules of sovereignty in international relations. International Organization, 48(1), 107–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bayly, C. A. (2004). The birth of the modern world, 1780–1914: Global connections and comparisons. In Maiden. Oxford, MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  9. Bentley, J. H. (1996). Cross-cultural interaction and periodization in world history. American Historical Review, 101(3), 749–770.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bentley, J. H. (1999). Asia in world history. Education about Asia, 4, 5–9.Google Scholar
  11. Berezkin, Y. E. (2007). On the structure of history: The temporal and spatial constituents. In P. V. Turchin, L. E. Grinin, S. Y. Malkov, & A. V. Korotayev (Eds.), History and mathematics: The conceptual space and trends for the search (pp. 88–98). Moscow: LKI/URSS. In Russian (Березкин Ю. Е. О структуре истории: временные и пространст- венные составляющие. История и математика: концептуальное пространство и направления поиска/Ред. П. В. Турчин, Л. Е. Гринин, С. Ю. Малков, А. В. Коротаев, с. 88–98. М.: ЛКИ/УРСС).Google Scholar
  12. Bernal, J. D. (1965). Science in history (3rd ed.). New York: Hawthorn Books.Google Scholar
  13. Bernbeck, R., & Pollock, S. (2005). A cultural-historical framework. In S. Pollock & R. Bernbeck (Eds.), Archaeologies of the middle east: Critical perspectives (pp. 11–40). Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  14. Blockmans, W. T. (1989). Preindustrial Europe. Theory and Society, 18(5), 733–755.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bondarenko, Y. S. (2006). The information field of the Neolithic Age in the Near East. Istoria i sovremennost, 2, 47–66. In Russian (Бондаренко Е. С. Информационное поле неолита Ближнего Востока. История и современность 2: 47–66).Google Scholar
  16. Borsch, S. J. (2005). The black death in Egypt and England. Cairo: The American University of Cairo Press.Google Scholar
  17. Braudel, F. (1973). Capitalism and material life, 1400–1800. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  18. Cauvin, J. (1989). The prehistoric origins of the society of pastoralists-herders in the Levant. In V. M. Masson (Ed.), The interaction of nomadic cultures and ancient civilizations (pp. 189–203). Almaaty: Nauka. In Russian (Ковэн, Ж. Доисторические истоки об- щества пастухов-кочевников в Леванте. Взаимодействие кочевых культур и древних цивилизаций/Ред. В. М. Масcон, с. 189–203. Алма-Ата: Наука).Google Scholar
  19. Cauvin, J. (2000). The birth of the gods and the origins of agriculture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Chase-Dunn, C., & Hall, T. D. (1994). The historical evolution of world-systems. Sociological Inquiry, 64, 257–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chase-Dunn, C., & Hall, T. D. (1997). Rise and demise: Comparing world-systems. Boulder, CO: Westview.Google Scholar
  22. Chase-Dunn, C., & Hall, T. D. (2011). East and west in world-systems evolution. In P. Manning & B. Gills (Eds.), Andre Gunder Frank and global development: Visions, remembrances, and explorations (pp. 97–119). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  23. Chase-Dunn, C., & Manning, S. (2002). City systems and world-systems: Four millennia of city growth and decline. Cross-Cultural Research, 36(4), 379–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chase-Dunn, C., Niemeyer, R., Alvarez, A., Inoue, H., & Love, J. (2010). Cycles of rise and fall, upsweeps and collapses: Changes in the scale of settlements and polities since the Bronze Age. In L. E. Grinin, P. Herrmann, A. V. Korotayev, & A. Tausch (Eds.), History & mathematics: Processes and models of global dynamics (pp. 64–91). Volgograd: Uchitel.Google Scholar
  25. Chernykh, E. N. (1992). Ancient metallurgy in the USSR: The early Metal Age. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Childe, G. (1952). New light on the most ancient east (4th ed.). London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  27. Chumakov, A. N. (2011). Globalization. The outlines of the integral world (2nd ed.). Moscow: Prospekt. In Russian (Чумаков А. Н. Глобализация и контуры целостного мира. 2-е изд. М.: Проспект).Google Scholar
  28. Cipolla, C. M. (1976). The industrial revolution. 1700–1914. London: Harvester.Google Scholar
  29. Clark, J. G. D. (1952). Prehistoric Europe: The economic basis. London: Methuen.Google Scholar
  30. Cohen, M. N. (1977). The food crisis in prehistory. Overpopulation and the origins of agriculture. New Haven – London: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Conversi, D. (2010). The limits of cultural globalisation? Journal of Critical Globalisation Studies, 3, 36–59.Google Scholar
  32. Courchene, T. J., & Savoie, D. J. (Eds.). (2003). The art of the state: Governance in a world without frontiers. Montreal: Institute for Research on Public Policy.Google Scholar
  33. Cowan, S. W., & Watson, P. J. (Eds.). (1992). The origins of agriculture. Washington & London: Smithsonian Institution Press.Google Scholar
  34. Dahrendorf, R. (1976). Changes in the class structure of industrial societies. In A. Beteille (Ed.), Social inequality (pp. 93–121). Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  35. Diamond, J. (1999). Guns, germs, and steel: The fates of human societies. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  36. Dietz, F. (1927). The industrial revolution. New York: Holt.Google Scholar
  37. Dols, M. W. (1977). The black death in the Middle East. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Durand, J. D. (1977). Historical estimates of world population. An evaluation. Population and Development Review, 3(3), 253–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Farer, T. (Ed.). (1996). Beyond sovereignty: Collectively defending democracy in the Americas. Baltimore – London: HU Press.Google Scholar
  40. Fisher, V. (1999). Europe: Economy, society and state: 1914–1980. Moscow: Vlados. In Russian (Фишер В. Европа: экономика, общество и государство: 1914–1980. М.: Владос).Google Scholar
  41. Foreman-Peck, J. (1998). Historical foundations of globalization. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  42. Frank, A. G. (1978). World accumulation. 1492–1789. New York: Monthly Review Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Frank, A. G. (1990). A theoretical introduction to 5,000 years of world system history. Review, 13(2), 155–248.Google Scholar
  44. Frank, A. G. (1993). Bronze Age world system cycles. Current Anthropology, 34(4), 383–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Frank, A. G. (1998). ReORIENT: Global economy in the Asian Age. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  46. Frank, A. G., & Gills, B. K. (Eds.). (1993). The world system: Five hundred years or five thousand? London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  47. Frank, A. G., & Thompson, W. R. (2005). Afro-Eurasian Bronze Age economic expansion and contraction revisited. Journal of World History, 16, 115–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Friedman, T. L. (2005). It’s a flat world, After all. New York Times Magazine, 3–4.Google Scholar
  49. Gans, C. (2001). Historical rights: The evaluation of nationalist claims to sovereignty. Political Theory, 29(1), 58–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gelber, H. G. (1997). Sovereignty through Interdependence. Kluwer Law International: London – The Hague – Boston.Google Scholar
  51. Gellner, E. (1988). Plough, sword and book. The structure of human history. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  52. Giddens, A. (1990). The consequences of modernity. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Gilpin, R. (2001). Global political economy: Understanding the international economic order. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  54. Goldstone, J. (1988). East and west in the seventeenth century: Political crises in Stuart England, Ottoman Turkey and Ming China. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 30, 103–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Grinin, L. E. (2003). Productive forces and historical process. Volgograd: Uchitel. In Russian (Гринин Л. Е. Производительные силы и исторический процесс. Волгоград: Учитель).Google Scholar
  56. Grinin, L. E. (2007a). Globalization and the transformation of national sovereignty. In J. Sheffield & K. Fielden (Eds.), Systemic development: Local solutions in a global environment (pp. 47–53). Goodyear: ISCE Publishing.Google Scholar
  57. Grinin, L. E. (2007b). Production revolutions and periodization of history: A comparative and theoretic-mathematical approach. Social Evolution & History, 6(2), 75–120.Google Scholar
  58. Grinin, L. E. (2007c). Production revolutions and periodization of history. Vestnik Rossiiskoi Akademii Nauk, 77(4), 309–315. In Russian (Гринин Л. Е. Производственные рево-люции и периодизация истории. Вестник Российской Академии наук 77(4): 309–315).Google Scholar
  59. Grinin, L. E. (2008a). Early state, developed state, mature state: The statehood evolutionary sequence. Social Evolution & History, 7(1), 67–81.Google Scholar
  60. Grinin, L. E. (2008b). Globalization and sovereignty: Why do states abandon their sovereign prerogatives? Age of Globalization, 1, 22–32.Google Scholar
  61. Grinin, L. E. (2009a). The state in the past and in the future. Herald of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 79(5), 480–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Grinin, L. E. (2009b). The state and historical process. The political aspect of historical process (2nd ed.). Moscow: LIBROCOM. In Russian (Гринин Л. Е. Государство и исторический процесс. Политический срез исторического процесса. 2-ое изд. М.: ЛИБРОКОМ).Google Scholar
  63. Grinin, L. E. (2011). The origins of globalization: World-system analysis. Vek globalizatsii, 1(7), 80–94. In Russian (Гринин Л. Е. Истоки глобализации: мир-системный ана-лиз. Век глобализации 1(7):80–94).Google Scholar
  64. Grinin, L. E. (2012a). Macrohistory and globalization. Volgograd: Uchitel.Google Scholar
  65. Grinin, L. E. (2012b). New foundations of international system or why do states lose their sovereignty in the age of globalization? Journal of Globalization Studies, 3(1), 3–38.Google Scholar
  66. Grinin, L. E., & Korotayev, A. V. (2006). Political development of the world system: A formal quantitative analysis. In S. Y. Malkov, L. E. Grinin, & A. V. Korotayev (Eds.), History & mathematics: Historical dynamics and development of complex societies (pp. 49–101). Moscow: KomKniga.Google Scholar
  67. Grinin, L. E., & Korotayev, A. V. (2009a). Social macroevolution: The genesis and transformation of the world-system. Moscow: LIBROCOM. In Russian (Гринин Л. Е., Коротаев А. В. Социальная макроэволюция: генезис и трансформация Мир-Системы. М.: ЛИБРОКОМ).Google Scholar
  68. Grinin, L. E., & Korotayev, A. V. (2009b). Social macroevolution: Growth of the world system integrity and a system of phase transitions. World Futures, 65(7), 477–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Grinin, L. E., & Korotayev, A. V. (2010a). Will the global crisis lead to global transformations? 1. The global financial system: Pros and cons. Journal of Globalization Studies, 1(1), 70–89.Google Scholar
  70. Grinin, L. E., & Korotayev, A. V. (2010b). Will the global crisis lead to global transformations? 2. The coming epoch of new coalitions. Journal of Globalization Studies, 1(2), 166–183.Google Scholar
  71. Grinin, L. E., & Korotayev, A. V. (2011). The coming epoch of new coalitions: Possible global scenarios. World Futures, 67(8), 531–563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Grinin, L. E., & Korotayev, A. V. (2012). Afroeurasian world-system: Genesis, transformations, characteristics. In S. Babones & C. Chase-Dunn (Eds.), Routledge handbook of world-systems analysis (pp. 30–39). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  73. Hall, T. D., Chase-Dunn, C., & Niemeyer, R. (2009). The roles of Central Asian middlemen and marcher states in Afroeurasian world-system synchrony. In G. Trinchur (Ed.), The rise of Asia and the transformation of the world-system (pp. 69–82). Boulder, CO: Paradigm Press.Google Scholar
  74. Harris, D., & Hillman, G. (1989). An evolutionary continuum of people-plant interaction. In D. R. Harris & G. C. Hillman (Eds.), Foraging and farming. The evolution of plant exploitation (pp. 11–26). London: Unwin Hyman.Google Scholar
  75. Hart, M. T. (1989). Cities and statemaking in the Dutch Republic, 1580–1680. Theory and Society, 18(5), 663–687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Hathaway, J. (1998). Egypt in the Seventeenth Century. In M. Daly (Ed.), The Cambridge history of Egypt (Vol. 2, pp. 34–58). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Held, D., McGrew, A., Goldblatt, D., & Perraton, J. (1999). Global transformations. politics, economics and culture. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  78. Held, D., & McGrew, A. (Eds.). (2003). The global transformation reader: An introduction to the globalization debate. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  79. Henderson, W. O. (1961). The industrial revolution on the continent: Germany, France, Russia, 1800–1914. London: F. Cass.Google Scholar
  80. Hopkins, A. G. (Ed.). (2002). Globalization in world history. New York City: Norton.Google Scholar
  81. Jaspers, K. (1953). The origin and goal of history. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  82. ICISS (International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty). (2001, December). The responsibility to protect: Research, bibliography, background. Supplementary volume to the report of the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty, Ottawa.Google Scholar
  83. Ingold, T. (1980). Hunters, pastoralists, and ranchers: Reindeer economies and their transformations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Kardulias, P. N. (2007). Negotiation and incorporation on the margins of world-systems: Examples from Cyprus and North America. Journal of World-Systems Research, 13, 55–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Kelbessa, V. (2006). Globalization and localization. Global studies. In I. I. Mazour & A. N. Chumakov (Eds.), The international encyclopedic dictionary (pp. 175–177). Moscow, St. Petersburg, New York: Elima, Piter. In Russian (Келбесса В. Глобализация и локализация. Глобалистика. Международный междисциплинарный энциклопедиче-ский словарь/Ред. И. И. Мазур, А. Н. Чумаков, с. 175–177. М. – СПб. – Н.-Й.: ИЦ «Элима»; ИД «Питер»).Google Scholar
  86. Kenyon, K. M. (1981). Excavations at Jericho (Vol. 3). Jerusalem: British School of Archaeology.Google Scholar
  87. Knowles, L. C. A. (1937). The industrial and commercial revolutions in Great Britain during the nineteenth century. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  88. Korotayev, A. V. (2000). Parallel cousin (FBD) marriage, Islamization, and Arabization. Ethnology, 39(4), 395–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Korotayev, A. V. (2003a). Religion and society in Southern Arabia and among the Arabs. Arabia, 1, 65–76.Google Scholar
  90. Korotayev, A. V. (2003b). Unilineal descent groups and deep Christianization: A cross-cultural comparison. Cross-Cultural Research, 37(1), 132–156.Google Scholar
  91. Korotayev, A. V. (2004). World religions and social evolution of the old world Oikumene civilizations: A cross-cultural perspective. Lewiston, NY: The Edwin Mellen Press.Google Scholar
  92. Korotayev, A. V. (2005). A compact macromodel of world system evolution. Journal of World-Systems Research, 11(1), 79–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Korotayev, A. V. (2006a). ‘Midwest-Amazonian’ folklore-mythological parallels? Acta Americana, 14(1), 5–24.Google Scholar
  94. Korotayev, A. V. (2006b). The world system urbanization dynamics: A quantitative analysis. In P. Turchin, L. Grinin, A. Korotayev, & V. C. de Munck (Eds.), History & mathematics: Historical dynamics and development of complex societies (pp. 44–62). Moscow: KomKniga/URSS.Google Scholar
  95. Korotayev, A. V. (2007). Compact mathematical models of world system development, and how they can help us to clarify our understanding of globalization processes. In G. Modelski, T. Devezas, & W. R. Thompson (Eds.), Globalization as evolutionary process: Modeling global change (pp. 133–160). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  96. Korotayev, A. V. (2008). Globalization and mathematical modeling of global development. In L. E. Grinin, D. D. Beliaev, & A. V. Korotayev (Eds.), Hierarchy and power in the history of civilizations: Political aspects of modernity (pp. 225–240). Moscow: LIBROCOM/URSS.Google Scholar
  97. Korotayev, A. V. (2009). Compact mathematical models of the world system development and their applicability to the development of local solutions in third world countries. In J. Sheffield & K. Fielden (Eds.), Systemic development: Local solutions in a global environment (pp. 103–116). Goodyear: ISCE Publishing.Google Scholar
  98. Korotayev, A. V. (2012). Globalization and mathematical modeling of global development. In L. Grinin, I. Ilyin, & A. Korotayev (Eds.), Globalistics and globalization studies (pp. 148–158). Moscow/Volgograd: Moscow University/Uchitel.Google Scholar
  99. Korotayev, A., Berezkin, Y., Kozmin, A., & Arkhipova, A. (2006). Return of the white raven: Postdiluvial reconnaissance motif A2234.1.1 reconsidered. Journal of American Folklore, 119, 472–520.Google Scholar
  100. Korotayev, A., & Grinin, L. (2006). Urbanization and political development of the world system: A comparative quantitative analysis. In P. Turchin et al. (Eds.), History and mathematics. Historical dynamics and development of complex societies (pp. 115–153). URSS: Moscow.Google Scholar
  101. Korotayev, A., & Grinin, L. (2012). Global urbanization and political development of the world system. In L. Grinin, I. Ilyin, & A. Korotayev (Eds.), Globalistics and globalization studies (pp. 28–78). Moscow – Volgograd: Moscow University – Uchitel.Google Scholar
  102. Korotayev, A., & Kazankov, A. (2000). Regions based on social structure: A reconsideration. Current Anthropology, 41(5), 668–690.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Korotayev, A., Klimenko, V., & Proussakov, D. (1999). Origins of Islam: Political-anthropological and environmental context. Acta Orientalia, 52, 243–276.Google Scholar
  104. Korotayev, A., Klimenko, V., & Proussakov, D. (2003). Globalizing trends in the Pre-Modern Islamic World and modern globalization. In M. Òuda et al. (Eds.), Globalization and the dialogue of civilizations (pp. 41–70). Cairo: Ain Shams University.Google Scholar
  105. Korotayev, A., Malkov, A., & Khaltourina, D. (2006a). Introduction to social macrodynamics: Compact macromodels of the world system growth. Moscow: Kom-Kniga/URSS.Google Scholar
  106. Korotayev, A., Malkov, A., & Khaltourina, D. (2006b). Introduction to social macrodynamics: Secular cycles and millennial trends. Moscow: KomKniga/URSS.Google Scholar
  107. Korotayev, A., Zinkina, J., Bogevolnov, J., & Malkov, A. (2011). Global unconditional convergence among larger economies after 1998? Journal of Globalization Studies, 2(2), 25–62.Google Scholar
  108. Kremer, M. (1993). Population growth and technological change: One million B.C. to 1990. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 108, 681–716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Kuijt, I. (Ed.). (2000). Life in neolithic farming communities. Social organization, identity, and differentiation. New York: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  110. Lamberg-Karlovsky, C. C., & Sabloff, J. A. (1979). Ancient civilizations. The Near East and Mesoamerica. Menlo Park, CA: The Benjamin/Cummins.Google Scholar
  111. Lamberg-Karlovsky, C. C., & Sabloff, J. A. (1992). Ancient Civilizations. The Near East and Mesoamerica. Moscow: Nauka. In Russian (Ламберг-Карловски К. К., Саблов Дж. А. Древние цивилизации. Ближний Восток и Мезоамерика. М.: Наука).Google Scholar
  112. Lattimore, O. (1940). Inner Asian frontiers of China. New York: American Geographical Society.Google Scholar
  113. Lewis, D., & Moore, K. (2009). The origins of globalization. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  114. Lieberman, S. (Ed.). (1972). Europe and the industrial revolution. Cambridge, MA: Schenkman.Google Scholar
  115. Mair, V. H. (Ed.). (2006). Contact and exchange in the ancient world. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawai’i Press.Google Scholar
  116. Markov, A. V., & Korotayev, A. V. (2007). Phanerozoic marine biodiversity follows a hyperbolic trend. Palaeoworld, 16, 311–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Marshall, T. Ch. (2005 [1959]). The nature of the class conflict. Lichnost. Cultura. Obschestvo, 25, 18–30. In Russian (Маршалл Т. Х. Природа классового конфликта. Личность. Культура. Общество 25: 18–30).Google Scholar
  118. Mazlish, B., & Iriye, A. (Eds.). (2005). The global history reader. New York – London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  119. McNeill, W. H. (1976). Plagues and peoples. New York: Monticello.Google Scholar
  120. Mellaart, J. (1975). The neolithic of the Near East. London: Thames and Hudson.Google Scholar
  121. Mellaart, J. (1982). The most ancient civilizations of the Near East. Moscow: Nauka. In Russian (Мелларт Дж. Древнейшие цивилизации Ближнего Востока. М.: Наука).Google Scholar
  122. Menard, R. (1991). Transport costs and long-range trade, 1300–1800: Was there a European ‘Transport Revolution’ in the early modern era? In J. D. Tracy (Ed.), Political economy of merchant empires (pp. 228–275). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Mokyr, J. (1985). The economics of the industrial revolution. London: George Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
  124. Mokyr, J. (Ed.). (1993). The British industrial revolution: An economic perspective. Boulder, CO: Westview.Google Scholar
  125. More, C. (2000). Understanding the industrial revolution. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  126. O’Rourke, K. H., & Williamson, J. G. (1999). Globalization and history: The evolution of a nineteenth-century Atlantic economy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  127. O’Rourke, K. H., & Williamson, J. G. (2000). When did globalization begin? (NBER Working Paper 7632). Cambridge, MA: NBER.Google Scholar
  128. Pantin, V. I. (2003). Cycles and waves of global history. Globalization in terms of history. Moscow: Novyi vek. In Russian (Пантин В. И. Циклы и волны глобальной истории. Глобализация в условиях истории. М.: Новый век).Google Scholar
  129. Peregrine, P. (2003). Atlas of cultural evolution. World Cultures, 14, 2–88.Google Scholar
  130. Peregrine, P., & Ember, M. (Eds.). (2001a). Encyclopedia of prehistory. Vol. 4. Europe. New York: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  131. Peregrine, P., & Ember, M. (Eds.). (2001b). Encyclopedia of prehistory. Vol. 8. South and Southwest Asia. New York: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  132. Phyllys, D. (1965). The first industrial revolution. Cambridge: University Press.Google Scholar
  133. Povalikhina, T. I. (2002). The USA economic might in the Post-War World. In V. I. Golubovich (Ed.), The foreign countries’ economic history (pp. 410–442). Minsk: Interpress-service. In Russian (Повалихина Т. И. Экономическое могущество США в после-военном мире. Экономическая история зарубежных стран/Ред. В. И. Голубович, с. 410–442. Минск: Интерпрессервис).Google Scholar
  134. Reed, C. A. (Ed.). (1977). Origins of agriculture. The Hague: Mouton.Google Scholar
  135. Rindos, D. (1984). The origins of agriculture: An evolutionary perspective. Orlando, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  136. Rumyantsev, A. M. (1987). The primitive productive mode (The political and economic essays). Moscow: Nauka. In Russian (Румянцев А. М. Первобытный способ производ-ства. Политико-экономические очерки. М.: Наука).Google Scholar
  137. Schultz, E. A., & Lavenda, R. H. (1998). Anthropology. A perspective on the human condition (2nd ed.). Mountain View, CA: Mayfield.Google Scholar
  138. Sharp, P. (2008, May 16). Why globalization might have started in the eighteenth century. VoxEU.Google Scholar
  139. Sherratt, A. (2006). The Trans-Eurasian exchange: The prehistory of Chinese relations with the west. In V. H. Mair (Ed.), Contact and exchange in the ancient world (pp. 30–61). Honolulu, HI: University of Hawai’i Press.Google Scholar
  140. Slezkin, L. Y. (1983). The establishment of the first English colonies in North America. In N. N. Bolkhovitinov (Ed.), The history of the USA (Vol. 1, pp. 15–49). Moscow: Nauka. In Russian (Cлезкин Л. Ю. Основание первых английских колоний в Северной Америке. т. 1. История США/Ред. Н. Н. Болховитинов, с. 15–49. М.: Наука).Google Scholar
  141. Smith, P. E. L. (1976). Food production and its consequences. Menlo Park, CA: Cumming Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  142. Solovyov, S. A., & Yevzerov, R. Y. (2001). The monopolistic capitalism of the early 20th century in the Western Europe and countries and the USA. In I. V. Grigorieva (Ed.), Modern history of Europe and America. The Early 1870s – 1918 (pp. 267–299). Moscow: Moscow University Press. In Russian (Соловьев С. А., Евзеров, Р. Я. Монополистический капитализм начала ХХ в. в странах Западной Европы и в США. Новая история стран Европы и Америки. Начало 1870–1918 гг./Ред. И. В. Григорьева, с. 267–299. М.: Издательство Московского университета).Google Scholar
  143. Stearns, P. N. (1993). Interpreting the industrial revolution. Islamic and European expansion. In M. Adams (Ed.), The forging of a global order (pp. 199–242). Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  144. Stearns, P. N. (Ed.). (1998). The industrial revolution in the world history (2nd ed.). Boulder, CO: Westview.Google Scholar
  145. Teggart, F. (1939). Rome and China: A study of correlation in historical events. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  146. Tekin, A. (2005). On the futures of sovereignty. Futures, 37, 563–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Tracy, J. D. (1990). Introduction. In J. D. Tracy (Ed.), The rise of merchant empires (pp. 1–13). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Walker, R. B. J., & Mendlovitz, S. H. (Eds.). (1990). Contending sovereignties: Redefining political community. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
  149. Wallerstein, I. (1974). The modern world-system (Vol. 3 vols). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  150. Wallerstein, I. (1980). The modern world-system. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  151. Wallerstein, I. (1988). The modern world-system. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  152. Wallerstein, I. (1987). World-systems analysis. In A. Giddens & J. Turner (Eds.), Social theory today (pp. 309–324). Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  153. Wallerstein, I. (2004). World-systems analysis: An introduction. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  154. Weiss, L. (Ed.). (2003). States in the global economy: Bringing domestic institutions back in. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  155. Wenke, R. J. (1990). Patterns in prehistory. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  156. Wilkinson, D. (1987). Central civilization. Comparative Civilizations Review, 17, 31–59.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Higher School of EconomicsNational Research UniversityMoscowRussian Federation

Personalised recommendations