The Ring Vortex: A Candidate for a Liquid-Based Complex Flow Phantom for Medical Imaging

  • Simone Ferrari
  • Simone AmbrogioEmail author
  • Adrian Walker
  • Andrew J. Narracott
  • John W. Fenner
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computational Vision and Biomechanics book series (LNCVB, volume 27)


Flow informed diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases requires the accurate and specific interpretation of complex flow patterns acquired by medical imaging systems. Satisfactory imaging performance is assured through calibration and validation against known reference flows, but in the domain of complex flows these suffer from numerous limitations. The hypothesis of the present work is that the ring vortex combines characteristics of high complexity comparable to pathological flows but also offers characterizability comparable to simple flows. This is explored through a combination of experiment and theory involving ring vortex production in a water tank. Measurements confirm that despite the complexity of this vortical flow, it is stable, reproducible, predictable and controllable. The flow is sufficiently well behaved that it is consistent with some flow imaging standards, and consequently deserves consideration as a candidate for a complex flow phantom.


Flow phantom Vortex ring Computational fluid dynamics Flow visualization 



This work is funded by the European Commission through the H2020 Marie Sklodowska-Curie European VPH-CaSE Training Network (, GA No. 642612.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Simone Ferrari
    • 1
    • 2
  • Simone Ambrogio
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Adrian Walker
    • 3
  • Andrew J. Narracott
    • 1
    • 2
  • John W. Fenner
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Infection, Immunity and Cardiovascular Disease, Mathematical Modelling in Medicine GroupUniversity of SheffieldSheffieldUK
  2. 2.Insigneo Institute for in Silico MedicineUniversity of SheffieldSheffieldUK
  3. 3.Leeds Test Objects Ltd.BoroughbridgeUK

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