Fast-Food Value Chains and Childhood Obesity: A Global Perspective
As childhood obesity and overweight statistics continue to rise throughout the globe, a broader analysis regarding the economic, political, and social contexts that shape children’s food choices is needed. This chapter advances a multilevel approach to studying childhood obesity by outlining a fast-food global value chain, with an emphasis on the role of fast-food corporations and their connection to dietary dependence. Dietary dependence posits that a country’s mode of integration into the global economy accelerates its population’s dependence on imported products and processed food from transnational corporations. Global fast-food expansion in China, India, and Russia illustrates how fast food directly shapes food availability and food options in the global market, strengthening and expanding dietary dependence on imported, processed, and fast-food varieties. Fast-food corporations continue to accelerate their global presence to offset pressure in the United States to provide healthier food options, although curbing the trend toward fast-food consumption has proven notoriously difficult everywhere.
KeywordsFood and agricultural value chains Global value chain Dietary dependence Transnational corporation Fast-food marketing Food choice
The authors gratefully acknowledge the valuable research assistance they received in preparing this second edition chapter from Zach McKenney. Joonkoo Lee, Kim Rogers, Yisel Valdes, and Aileen Zhang were instrumental in helping prepare the first edition chapter.
- 2.Euromonitor International. Fast Food in the US. 2016.Google Scholar
- 4.World Health Organization. www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/childhood/en.
- 6.World Health Organization. Report on the Commission on Ending Childhood Obesity, 2016, p. 2. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/204176/1/9789241510066_eng.pdf?ua=1&ua=1.
- 10.Stuckler D, McKee M, Ebrahim S, Basu S. Manufacturing epidemics: the role of global producers in increased consumption of unhealthy commodities including processed foods, alcohol, and tobacco. Policy Forum. 2012;9(6):1–8.Google Scholar
- 13.Euromonitor International. Fast Food in the US. 2016, p. 1.Google Scholar
- 14.Sturgeon T. From commodity chains to value chains: interdisciplinary theory building in an age of globalization. In: Bair J, editor. Frontiers of commodity chain research. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press; 2009.Google Scholar
- 17.Schultz EJ. Behind Subway’s post-Jared strategy: no more discount ads, fewer celebrities. Advert Age 2015 December 27.Google Scholar
- 19.Statista. Doctor’s Associates (Subway) advertising spending in the United States from 2012 to 2014 (in million U.S. dollars). 2016. http://www.statista.com/proxy.lib.utk.edu:90/statistics/306676/ad-spend-subway-usa/.
- 20.Lukerson V. Subway targets kids with new marketing campaign. Time Mag 2014 July 26.Google Scholar
- 21.Story M, French S. Food advertising and marketing directed at children at adolescents in the U.S. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2004;1(3):1–17.Google Scholar
- 22.Pingali P. Westernization of Asian diets and the transformation of food systems: implications for research and policy. ESA Working Paper no 04–17. 2004.Google Scholar
- 23.McDonald’s Corporation. United States Securities and Exchange Commission Form 10-K. 2015.Google Scholar
- 24.Yum! Brands. Annual Report. 2015.Google Scholar
- 26.Lang T, Heasman M. Food wars: the global battle for mouths, minds and markets. New York: Routledge; 2015.Google Scholar
- 27.Schlosser E. Fast food nation: the dark side of the all-American meal. New York: Harper Collins; 2001.Google Scholar
- 28.Euromonitor International. Fast Food in China. 2016, p. 1.Google Scholar
- 29.Tyson Foods, Inc. About our China operations. 2016. http://www.tysonfoods.com/we-care/around-theworld/international-operations/tyson-china/about-tyson-china.
- 30.Rosegrant MW, Paisner MS, Meijer S, Witcover J. 2020 global food outlook: trends, alternatives, and choices. Washington, DC: International Policy Research Institute; 2001.Google Scholar
- 31.Li D. Do in China as the Chinese do: an overview of KFC’s localization strategies in China. 2004. http://blog.lidan.net/2004/04kfcs_localization_strategies_in_china.html. Accessed 15 Aug 2007.
- 32.Euromonitor International. Fast Food in China. 9 May 2016.Google Scholar
- 34.Euromonitor International. Fast Food India, 2016, p. 1.Google Scholar
- 35.Pakistan & Gulf Economist. Fast food chain Burger King to enter Indian market 2013; Nov. 3.Google Scholar
- 36.Mitra K. McDonald’s: from field to fries. Sify. Mar 2009. http://www.sify.com/carnaticmusic/fullstory.php?id=14875560. Accessed 30 Dec 2016.
- 37.Mitra M. How Domino’s CEO Ajay Kaul makes sure the 30 minute promise is kept every time. The Economic Times. 22 March 2013, http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2013-03-22/news/37904259_1_domino-spizza-india-pizza-maker-pizza-store/3. Accessed 11 Oct 2016.
- 40.Food and Drug Administration. A labeling guide for restaurants and retail establishments selling away-from home foods—Part II (Menu Labeling Requirements in Accordance with 21 CFR 101.11): Guidance for Industry. 2016. p. 4. http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Food/GuidanceRegulation/GuidanceDocumentsRegulatoryInformation/UCM461963.pdf%20.
- 41.Grynbaum M. New York’s ban on big sodas is rejected by final court. New York Times 26 June 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/06/27/nyregion/city-loses-final-appeal-on-limiting-sales-of-large-sodas.html.
- 42.Levine D, Baertlein L. Fast-food lobbies U.S. states on “Happy Meal” laws. Reuters. 2011. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-mcdonalds-toys-idUSTRE7484YN20110509.
- 43.Public Health Law Center. Healthy Eating. 2016. http://publichealthlawcenter.org/topics/healthy-eating.
- 44.Khazan O. Fast-food chains disproportionately target black children. Advertising Age. 13 Nov 2014. http://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2014/11/the-racial-gap-in-fast-food-marketing/382688/. Accessed 30 Dec 2016.
- 45.Bratskeir K. 11 Food companies removing artificial flavors by 2018. The Huffington Post. 28 July 2015. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/11-companies-that-plan-to-remove-artificial-flavors-before-2019_us_55b6a777e4b0074ba5a5d327. Accessed 11 Oct 2016.
- 46.Simon M. Appetite for profit how the food industry undermines our health and how to fight back. New York: Nation Books; 2006.Google Scholar
- 47.Brownell KD, Horgen KB. Food fight: the inside story of the food industry, America’s obesity crisis, and what we can do about it. Columbus, OH: McGraw-Hill; 2003.Google Scholar
- 48.Euromonitor International. Fast Food India, 2016, p. 2.Google Scholar
- 49.Fight for $15. About Us. http://fightfor15.org/about-us/. Accessed 11 Nov 2016.
- 50.Dreier P. How the Fight for 15 Won. The American Prospect 2016; April 4 http://prospect.org/article/how-fight-15-won. Accessed 11 Nov 2016.