Advertisement

Children

  • Ellis Cashmore
  • Jamie Cleland
  • Kevin Dixon
Chapter

Abstract

These were two of many responses from our Screen Society participants that consistently referred to a new culture of contemporary childhood that primarily centred on the regular and widespread consumption of new media technology via screens. For many children the internet is a world of wonder with endless possibilities to connect, create, communicate, be entertained and acquire knowledge at the end of their fingertips. As soon as they learn to swipe and tap at whatever age they gain access to electronic devices, a child is involved in a process of creative and interactive learning that has limited online boundaries. (Whilst recognising the onset of puberty through post-puberty period of adolescence, for the purposes of this chapter we follow the definition of a child proposed by the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child as “a human being below the age of 18 years”.)

References

  1. Almeida, A., Almeida Alves, N., Delicado, A., & Carvalho, T. (2011). Children and digital diversity: From ‘unguided rookies’ to ‘self-reliant cybernauts’. Childhood, 19(2), 219–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Awan, F., & Gauntlett, D. (2013). Young people’s uses and understandings of online social networks in their everyday lives. Young, 21(2), 111–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beck, U. (1992). Risk Society—Towards a New Modernity. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  4. Bradley, K. (2005). Internet lives: Social context and moral domain in adolescent development. New Directions for Youth Development, 108, 57–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chu, D. (2016). Internet risks and expert views: A case study of the insider perspectives of youth workers in Hong Kong. Information, Communication & Society, 19(8), 1077–1094.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. European Commission. (2008). Towards a safer use of the Internet for children in the EU-A parent’s perspective. Brussels: European Commission. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/commfrontoffice/publicopinion/flash/fl_248_en.pdf.
  7. Giddens, A. (1991). Modernity and Self-identity. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Hengst, H. (2001). Rethinking the liquidation of childhood. In M. Du Bois-Raymond, H. Süncker, & H. Krüger (Eds.), Childhood in Europe (pp. 13–41). New York: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  9. Işik, B. & Alkaya, S. (2017). Internet use and psychosocial health of school aged children. Psychiatry Research, 255, 204–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jackson, J. (2016, January 26). Children spending more time online than watching TV for the first time. Guardian. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/media/2016/jan/26/children-time-online-watching-tv.
  11. Kowalski, R., Giumetti, G., Schroeder, A., & Reese, H. (2012). Cyberbullying among college students: Evidence from multiple domains of college life. In C. Wankel & L. Wankel (Eds.), Misbehavior Online in Higher Education (pp. 293–321). Bingley, UK: Emerald.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kuss, D., van Rooij, A., Shorter, G., Griffiths, M., & van de Mheen, D. (2013). Internet addiction in adolescents: Prevalence and risk factors. Computers in Human Behavior, 29, 1987–1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lenhart, A. (2015). Teens, social media and technology overview 2015. Pew Research Center. Available at: http://www.pewinternet.org/2015/04/09/teens-social-media-technology-2015/.
  14. Livingstone, S. (2009). Children and the Internet. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  15. Livingstone, S. (2011). Internet, children, and youth. In M. Consalvo & C. Ess (Eds.), The Handbook of Internet Studies (pp. 348–368). Oxford: Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Livingstone, S., & Helsper, E. (2013). Children, internet and risk in comparative perspective. Journal of Children and Media, 7(1), 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Livingstone, S., Haddon, L., Görzig, A., & Ólafsson, K. (2014). EU Kids Online II: A Large-Scale Quantitative Approach to the Study of European Children’s Use of the Internet and Online Risks and Safety. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  18. Ozgür, H. (2016). The relationship between internet parenting styles and internet usage of children and adolescents. Computers in Human Behavior, 60, 411–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Roiphe, K. (2013, November 1). Would you spy on your teenager? The Financial Times. Available at: https://www.ft.com/content/08887b7a-41c1-11e3-b064-00144feabdc0.
  20. Sherwin, A. (2016, July 11). Children’s UK TV programming hits a low as YouTube lures youngsters, Ofcom finds. I. Available at: https://inews.co.uk/essentials/culture/television/childrens-uk-tv-programming-hits-low-youtube-lures-youngsters-ofcom-finds/.
  21. Telegraph. (2017, July 11). Boy, five, is ‘youngest person in Britain’ investigated by police for sexting. Telegraph. Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/07/11/boy-five-youngest-person-britain-investigated-police-sexting/.
  22. Vandoninck, S., D’Haenens, L., & Donoso, V. (2010). Digital literacy of Flemish youth: How do they handle online content risks? Communications, 35, 397–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Willard, N. (2007). Cyberbullying and Cyberthreats: Responding to the Challenge of Online Social Aggression, Threats, and Distress. Champaign, IL: Research Press.Google Scholar
  24. Wold, T. (2010). Protection and access: To regulate young people’s internet use. International Journal of Media and Cultural Politics, 6(1), 63–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Languages and Social SciencesAston UniversityBirminghamUK
  2. 2.UniSA Business SchoolUniversity of South AustraliaAdelaideAustralia
  3. 3.School of Social Sciences, Humanities and LawTeesside UniversityMiddlesbroughUK

Personalised recommendations