Advertisement

Runaway Barrier Island Transgression Concept: Global Case Studies

  • Duncan M. FitzGeraldEmail author
  • Christopher J. Hein
  • Zoe Hughes
  • Mark Kulp
  • Ioannis Georgiou
  • Michael Miner
Chapter

Abstract

The regime of accelerating sea-level rise forecasted by the IPCC (2013) suggests that many platform marshes and tidal flats may soon cross a threshold and deteriorate/drown as back-barrier basins transform to intertidal and subtidal areas. This chapter explores how marshes may succumb to rising sea level and how the loss of wetlands will increase the extent and the overall depth of open water in the back-barrier, causing greater tidal exchange. Here, we present a conceptual model that depicts how increasing tidal prism enlarges the size of tidal inlets and sequesters an increasingly larger volume of sand in ebb-tidal delta shoals. The conceptual model is based on empirical relationships between tidal prism and inlet parameters, as well as field and theoretical hydraulic studies of tidal inlets showing that long-term basinal deepening intensifies the flood dominance of existing inlet channels and transforms some ebb-dominated channels to flood-dominated channels. This condition leads to sand movement into the back-barrier, which builds and enlarges flood-tidal deltas, filling the newly created accommodation space. The model hypothesizes that sand contributed to the growth of the ebb and flood tidal delta shoals will be at the expense of barrier reservoirs. This will result in diminished sand supplies along the coast, eventually leading to fragmentation of barrier island chains and the transition from stable to transgressive coastal systems. Several historical studies of barrier island systems throughout the world demonstrate barrier response to changing tidal prism and illustrate different stages of this conceptual model.

Keywords

Barrier island Tidal inlets Transgressive shoreline Sea-level rise Saltmarsh deterioration Tidal prism Sediment transport Inlet hydrodynamics Coastal sand-reservoirs Ebb-tidal delta Flood-tidal delta Back-barrier feedbacks Lagoons Virginia barrier islands Nauset Spit New Inlet, MA Assateague Island Barataria Islands Chandeleur Islands Copper River Friesian Islands 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the many graduate students whose research helped develop the ideas presented in this chapter. The paper has been substantively improved with suggestions and editorial comments by Andrew Ashton, Laura Moore, Brad Murray, and one anonymous reviewer.

References

  1. Aubrey D, Speer P (1985) A study of non-linear tidal propagation in shallow inlet/estuarine system. In: Aubrey D, Weishar L (eds) Estuarine, coastal and shelf science, vol 21, pp 185–205Google Scholar
  2. Barnhardt W (ed) (2009) Coastal change along the shore of northeastern South Carolina—the South Carolina coastal erosion study: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1339:77Google Scholar
  3. Barras J (2006) Land area change in coastal Louisiana after the 2005 hurricanes—a series of three maps: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2006-1274. http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1274/
  4. Barras J, Bourgeois P, Handley L (1994) Land loss in coastal Louisiana 1956-90. National Biological Survey, National Wetlands Research Center Open File Report 94:4Google Scholar
  5. Beets D, van der Valk L, Stive M (1992) Holocene evolution of the coast of Holland. Mar Geol 103:423–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Belliard J et al (2015) An ecogeomorphic model of tidal channel initiation and elaboration in progressive marsh accretion contexts. J Geophys Res 120:1040–1064CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bird E (1985) Coastline changes. A global review. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. Boon J (2012) Evidence of sea level acceleration at U.S. and Canada Tide Stations, Atlantic Coast, North America. J Coast Res 28:1437–1445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Boon J, Byrne R (1981) On basin hypsometry and the morphodynamic response of coastal inlet systems. Mar Geol 40:27–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Boon JD, Mitchell M (2015) Nonlinear change in sea level observed at North American tide stations. J Coast Res 31(6):1295–1305.  https://doi.org/10.2112/JCOASTRES-D-15-00041.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Boyd R, Penland S (1981) Washover of deltaic barriers on the Louisiana coast. Trans Gulf Coast Assoc Geol Soc 31:243–248Google Scholar
  12. Boyd R, Bowen A, Hall R (1987) Evolutionary model for transgressive sedimentation on the eastern shore of Nova Scotia. Glaciated coasts. Academic Press Inc., New York, pp 87–114Google Scholar
  13. Brinson MM, Christian RR, Blum LK (1995) Multiple states in the sea-level induced transition from terrestrial forest to estuary. Estuaries 18:648–659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bruun P (1988) The Bruun rule of erosion by sea-level rise: a discussion on large-scale two- and three-dimensional usages. J Coast Res 4:627–648Google Scholar
  15. Cahoon D, Reed D (1995) Relationships among marsh surface topography, hydro-period, and soil accretion in a deteriorating Louisiana salt marsh. J Coast Res 11:357–369Google Scholar
  16. Cherry JA, McKee KL, Grace JB (2009) Elevated CO2 enhances biological contributions to elevation change in coastal wetlands by offsetting stressors associated with sea‐level rise. J Ecol 97:67–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chmura G et al (2003) Global carbon sequestration in tidal, saline wetland soils. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 17Google Scholar
  18. Christiansen T, Wiberg P, Milligan T (2000) Flow and sediment transport on a tidal salt marsh surface. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 50:315–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Church JA, Clark PU, Cazenave A, Gregory JM, Jevrejeva S, Levermann A, Merrifield MA, Milne GA, Nerem RS, Nunn PD, Payne AJ, Pfeffer WT, Stammer D, Unnikrishnan AS (2013) Sea level change. In: Stocker TF, Qin D, Plattner G-K, Tignor M, Allen SK, Boschung J, Nauels A, Xia Y, Bex V, Midgley PM (eds) Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New YorkGoogle Scholar
  20. Coleman J, Roberts H, Stone G (1998) Mississippi river delta: an overview. J Coast Res 14:698–716Google Scholar
  21. Cooper J, Pilkey O (2004) Sea-level rise and shoreline retreat: time to abandon the Bruun rule. Glob Planet Change 43:157–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cooper J et al (1990) Ephemeral stream mouth bars at flood-breach river mouths: comparison with tidal deltas at barrier inlets. Mar Geol 95:57–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Couvillion B et al (2011) Land area change in coastal Louisiana from 1932 to 2010: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 3164, scale 1:265,000, 12 p. pamphletGoogle Scholar
  24. D’Alpaos A, Lanzoni S, Marani M, Rinaldo A (2007) Landscape evolution in tidal embayments: modeling the interplay of erosion sedimentation and vegetation dynamics. J Geophys Res 112(1)Google Scholar
  25. Dalrymple R, Zaitlin B, Boyd R (1992) Estuarine facies models: conceptual basis and stratigraphic implications: perspective. J Sediment Petrol 62:1130–1146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Darby FA, Turner RE (2008) Below- and aboveground biomass of Spartina alterniflora: response to nutrient addition in a Louisiana Salt Marsh. Estuar Coasts 31:326–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Davis R, Hayes M (1984) What is a wave dominated coast? Mar Geol 60:313–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. De Vriend H et al (1993) Approaches to long-term modeling of coastal morphology: a review. Coast Eng 21:225–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dean R, Perlin M (1977) Coastal engineering study of Ocean City Inlet, Maryland. In: Proceedings, coastal sediments 1977, American Society of Civil Engineers, pp 520–540Google Scholar
  30. Deaton CD, Hein CJ, Kirwan ML (2017) Barrier-island migration dominates ecogeomorphic feedbacks and drives salt marsh loss along the Virginia Atlantic Coast, USA. Geology 45:123–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dingler J, Clifton H (1994) Barrier systems of California, Oregon, and Washington. In: Davis R (ed) Geology of Holocene barrier island systems. Springer, Berlin, pp 115–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dissanayake D, Ranasinghe R, Roelvink J (2012) The morphological response of large tidal inlet/basin systems to relative sea level rise. Clim Change 113:253–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Donnelly J et al (2004) Coupling instrumental and geological records of sea-level change: evidence from southern New England of and increase in the rate of sea-level rise in the late 19th century. Geophys Res Lett 31.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2003GL018933
  34. Doran K et al (2013) National assessment of hurricane-induced coastal erosion hazards: Mid-Atlantic Coast: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2013–1131, 28 pGoogle Scholar
  35. Dronkers J (1988) Inshore/offshore water exchange in shallow coastal systems. Coast Offshore Ecosyst Interact 22:3–39Google Scholar
  36. Dronkers J (1998) Morphodynamics of the Dutch delta. Phys Estuar Coast Seas 297–304Google Scholar
  37. Eiser W, Kjerfve B (1986) Marsh topography and hypsometric characteristics of a South Carolina salt marsh basin. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 23:595–605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Erwin R, Sanders G, Prosser D (2004) Changes in lagoonal marsh morphology at selected northeastern Atlantic coast sites of significance to migratory waterbirds. Wetlands 24:891–903CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Erwin R et al (2006) Surface elevation dynamics in vegetated Spartina marshes versus unvegetated tidal ponds along the Mid- Atlantic Coast, USA, with implications to waterbirds. Estuar Coast 29:96–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Escoffier F (1940) The stability of tidal inlets. Shore Beach 8:114–115Google Scholar
  41. Escoffier F (1977) Hydraulics and stability of tidal inlets. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Coastal 75Google Scholar
  42. Ezer T, Corlett W (2012) Is sea level rise accelerating in the Chesapeake Bay? A demonstration of a novel new approach for analyzing sea level data. Geophys Res Lett 39.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2012GL053435
  43. Fagherazzi S, Priestas A (2010) Sediments and water fluxes in a muddy coastline: interplay between waves and tidal channel hydrodynamics. Earth Surf Process Landform 35:284–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Fagherazzi S et al (2012) Numerical models of salt marsh evolution: ecological, geomorphic, and climatic factors. Rev Geophys 50Google Scholar
  45. Feagin R et al (2009) Does vegetation prevent wave erosion of salt marsh edges? Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:10109–10113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Fearnley S et al (2009) Hurricane impact and recovery shoreline change analysis of the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, USA: 1855 to 2005. Geo-Mar Lett 29:445–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Fenster MS, FitzGerald DM, Kelley JT, Belknap DF, Buynevich IV, Dickson SM (2001) Net ebb sediment transport in a rock-bound, mesotidal estuary during spring-freshet conditions: Kennebec River Estuary, Maine. Geol Soc Am Bull 113:1522–1531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Fenster MS, McBride RA, Trembanis A, Richardson T, Nebel SH (2011) A field test of the theoretical evolution of a mixed-energy barrier coast to a regime of accelerated sea-level rise. The proceedings of the coastal sediments 2011, American Association of Civil Engineers, Miami, FL, pp 216–229Google Scholar
  49. Ferrians O (1966) Effects of the earthquake of March 27, 1964, in the Copper River basin area, Alaska. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 543-E 28Google Scholar
  50. Field M, Roy P (1984) Offshore transport and sand-body formation: evidence from a steep, high-energy shoreface, Southeastern Australia. J Sediment Res 54:1292–1302Google Scholar
  51. FitzGerald D, Montello T (1993) Back-barrier and inlet sediment response to the breaching of Nauset Spit and formation of New Inlet, Cape Cod, Massachusetts. From: coastal and estuarine studies. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  52. FitzGerald D, Pendelton E (2002) Inlet formation and evolution of the sediment bypassing system: New Inlet, Cape Cod, Massachusetts. J Coast Res 36:290–299Google Scholar
  53. FitzGerald D, Penland S, Nummedal D (1984) Control of barrier island shape by inlet sediment bypassing: East Frisian Islands, West Germany. Mar Geol 60:355–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. FitzGerald D et al (2004) Morphologic and stratigraphic evolution of muddy ebb-tidal deltas along a subsiding coast: Barataria Bay, Mississippi River delta. Sedimentology 51:1157–1178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. FitzGerald D et al (2005) Coarse-grained sediment transport in Northern New England Estuaries: a synthesis. Coast Syst Cont Margin 8:195–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. FitzGerald D et al (2007) Impacts of rising sea level to back-barrier Wetlands, Tidal Inlets, and Barrier Islands: Barataria Coast, Louisiana. Coast Sediment 7:1179–1192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. FitzGerald D et al (2008) Coastal impacts due to sea-level rise. Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci 36:601–647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. FitzGerald D, Buynevich I, Hein C (2012) Morphodynamics and facies architecture of tidal inlets and tidal deltas. In: Davis R, Dalrymple R (eds) Principles of tidal sedimentology. Springer, New York, pp 301–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Fontolan G et al (2007) Sediment storage at tidal inlets in Northern Adriatic Lagoons: ebb-tidal delta morphodynamics, conservation and sand use strategies. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 75:261–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Frazier D (1967) Recent deltaic deposits of the Mississippi River; their development and chronology. Gulf Coast Assoc Geol Soc Trans 17:287–315Google Scholar
  61. French J, Spencer T (1993) Mar Geol 110:315–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Friedrichs C et al (1993) Hydrodynamic modeling of a multiple-inlet estuary/barrier system: insight into tidal inlet formation and stability. In: Aubrey D, Giese G (eds) Formation and evolution of multiple tidal inlet systems. American Geophysical Institute, Washington, DC, pp 95–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Frueergaard M et al (2015) Stratigraphy, evolution, and controls of a Holocene transgressive–regressive barrier island under changing sea level: Danish north sea coast. J Sediment Res 85:820–884CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Georgiou I, Schindler J (2009) Wave forecasting and longshore sediment transport gradients along a transgressive barrier island: Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana. Geo-Mar Lett 29:467–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Gleason M et al (1979) Effects of stem density upon sediment retention by salt marsh cord grass, Spartina alterniflora loisel. Estuar Coast 2:271–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Goeldner L (1999) The German Wadden sea coast: reclamation and environmental protection. J Coast Conserv 5:23–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Grinsted A, Moore J, Jevrejeva S (2013) Projected Atlantic hurricane surge thread from rising temperatures. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:5369–5373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Halsey S (1979) New model of barrier island development. In: Leatherman S (ed) Barrier islands: from the Gulf of St. Lawrence to the Gulf of Mexico. Academic Press, New York, pp 185–210Google Scholar
  69. Hapke C et al (2010a) A review of sediment budget imbalances along Fire Island, New York: can nearshore geologic framework and patterns of shoreline change explain the deficit? J Coast Res 26:510–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hapke C et al (2010b) National assessment of shoreline change: historical shoreline change along the New England and Mid-Atlantic coasts: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2010-1118, 57pGoogle Scholar
  71. Harris P (1988) Large-scale bedforms as indicators of mutually evasive sand transport and the sequential infilling of wide-mouthed estuaries. Sediment Geol 57:273–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Hart W, Murray S (1978) Energy balance and wind effects in a shallow sound. J Geophys Res 83:4097–4106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Hayes M (1979) Barrier island morphology as a function of tidal and wave regime. In: Leatherman S (ed) Barrier islands. Academic, New York, pp 1–28Google Scholar
  74. Hayes M (1994) The Georgia bight barrier system. In: Davis R (ed) Geology of Holocene barrier island system. Springer, Berlin, pp 233–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Hayes M, FitzGerald D (2013) Origin, evolution, and classification of tidal inlets, symposium in applied coastal geomorphology to honor miles O. Hayes. J Coast Res Special Issue 69:14–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Hayes M, Kana T (1976a) Terrigenous clastic depositional environments: some modern example: a field course. Coastal Research Division, Department of Geology, University of South Carolina. No. 11Google Scholar
  77. Hayes M, Kana T (eds) (1976b) Terrigenous clastic depositional environments. Tech. Rept. No.11-CRD. Coastal Research Division. Dept. Geol., Univ. South Carolina, 306 pGoogle Scholar
  78. Hayes M, Ruby C (1994) Barriers of Pacific Alaska. In: Davis R (ed) Geology of Holocene barrier island systems. Springer, Berlin, pp 395–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Hayes M et al (1976) Geomorphology of the Southern Coast of Alaska. Coast Eng Proc 1:15Google Scholar
  80. Hein C et al (2012) Refining the model of barrier island formation along a paraglacial coast in the Gulf of Maine. Mar Geol 307:40–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Hein C et al (2014a) Evolution of paraglacial coasts in response to changes in fluvial sediment supply. Geol Soc Lond Spec Publ 388:247–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Hein C et al (2014b) Coastal response to late-stage transgression and sea-level highstand. Geol Soc Am Bull 126:459–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Hicks D, Hume T (1996) Morphology an size of ebb tidal deltas at natural inlets on open-sea and pocket-bay coasts, North Island, New Zealand. Coast Res 12:47–63Google Scholar
  84. Homeier H, Luck G (1969) Das historische Kartenwerk 1: 50000 der Niedersächsischen Wasserwirtschaftsverwaltung als Ergebnis historisch-topographischer Untersuchungen und Grundlage zur kausalen Deutung hydrologisch-morphologischer Gestaltungsvorgänge im Küstengebiet. WurmGoogle Scholar
  85. Hughes Z et al (2009) Rapid headward erosion of marsh creeks in response to relative sea level rise. Geophys Res Lett 36:L03602.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL036000 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Inman D, Nordstrom C (1971) On the tectonic and morphologic classification of coasts. J Geol 79:1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. IPCC (2013) Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the IPCCGoogle Scholar
  88. Jarrett J (1976) Tidal prism-inlet area relationships. GITI Rep. 3, U.S. Army Engineer Waterw. Exp. Stn., Vicksburg, MSGoogle Scholar
  89. Jevrejeva S, Moore J, Grinsted A (2012) Sea level projections to AD2500 with a new generation of climate change scenarios. Glob Planet Change 80:14–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Kastler J, and Wiberg P, 1996, Sedimentation and boundary changes of Virginia salt marshes: Estuar Coast Shelf Sci, v. 42, p. 683–700, doi: https://doi.org/10.1006/ecss.1996.0044.
  91. Kindinger J, Buster N, Flocks J, Bernier J, Kulp M (2013) Louisiana barrier island comprehensive monitoring (BICM) program summary report: data and analyses 2006 through 2010: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2013–1083, 86 pGoogle Scholar
  92. Kirwan M, Guntenspergen G (2010) Influence of tidal range on the stability of coastal marshland. J Geophys Res 115Google Scholar
  93. Kirwan M, Guntenspergen G (2012) Feedbacks between inundation, root production, and shoot growth in a rapidly submerging brackish marsh. J Ecol 100:764–770CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Kirwan M, Megonigal J (2013) Tidal wetland stability in the face of human impacts and sea-level rise. Nature 504:53–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Kirwan M, Murray A (2007) A coupled geomorphic and ecological model of tidal marsh evolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:6118–6122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Kirwan M, Guntenspergen G, Morris J (2009) Latitudinal trends in Spartina alterniflora productivity and the response of coastal marshes to global change. Glob Change Biol 15:1982–1989CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Kirwan M et al (2010) Limits on the adaptability of coastal marshes to rising sea level. Geophys Res Lett 37.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2010GL045489
  98. Kirwan M et al (2016) Overestimation of marsh vulnerability to sea level rise. Nat Clim Change 6:253–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Knutson T et al (2010) Tropical cyclones and climate change. Nat Geosci 3:157–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Kraus NC, Larson ML, Wise RA (1998) Depth of closure in beach-fill design, Coastal Engineering Technical Note. U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS, 13pGoogle Scholar
  101. Kraus N (2000) Reservoir model of ebb-tidal shoal evolution and sand bypassing. J Waterway Port Coast Ocean Eng 126:305–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Kulp M, FitzGerald D, Penland S (2005) Sand-rich lithosomes of the Holocene Mississippi River delta plain. In: Giosan L, Bhattacharya J (eds) River deltas-concepts, models, and examples, Society of Economic Mineralogists and Paleontologists Special Publication 83:277–291Google Scholar
  103. Langley A et al (2009) Elevated CO2 stimulates marsh elevation gain, counterbalancing sea-level rise. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:6182–6186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Leonard L, Croft A (2006) The effect of standing biomass on flow velocity and turbulence in Spartina alterniflora canopies. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 69:325–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. List J et al (1994) Louisiana barrier island erosion study: atlas of seafloor changes from 1878 to 1989. Miscellaneous Investigations Series I-2150-B. US Geological Survey and Louisiana State University, Reston, VA, 81 pGoogle Scholar
  106. Liu J et al (1993) Morphodynamics evolution of a newly formed tidal inlet. In: Aubrey D, Giese G (eds) Formation and evolution of multiple tidal inlets. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC.  https://doi.org/10.1029/CE044p0062 Google Scholar
  107. Louters T, Gerritsen F (1994) The riddle of the sands: a tidal system’s answer to a rising sea level. Public works and water management. National Institute for Coastal and Marine Management, The Hague, NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  108. Lovering J, Adams R (2009) Exploring the interplay of wave climate and terrestrial sediment supply in the geomorphic evolution of sandy coasts with a numerical model. Abstract Presented at the AGU Fall Meeting 1:644Google Scholar
  109. Marani M et al (2011) Understanding and predicting wave erosion of marsh edges. Geophys Res Lett 38Google Scholar
  110. Mariotti G, Carr J (2014) Dual role of slat marsh retreat: long-term loss and short-term resilience. Water Resour Res 50:2963–2974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Mariotti G, Fagherazzi S (2013) Critical width of tidal flats triggers marsh collapse in the absence of sea-level rise. PNAS 110:5353–5356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Mariotti G et al (2010) Influence of storm surges and sea level on shallow tidal basin erosive processes. J Geophys Res 115(C11).  https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JC005892
  113. McBride R, Penland S, Hilands M, Williams S, Westphal K, Jaffe B, Sallenger A Jr (1992) Chapter 4: Analysis of barrier shoreline change in Louisiana from 1853 to 1989. In: Williams S, Penland S, Sallenger AH (eds) Atlas of shoreline changes in Louisiana from 1853 to 1989, USGS Miscellaneous Investigations Series I-2150-A, 108 pGoogle Scholar
  114. McBride R, Fenster M, Seminack C, Richardson T, Sepanik J, Hanley J, Bundick J, Tedder E (2015) Holocene barrier-island geology and morphodynamics of the Maryland and Virginia open-ocean coasts: Fenwick, Assateague, Chincoteague, Wallops, Cedar, and Parramore Islands. Field Excursions for the GSA Annual Meeting, Baltimore, 2015: GSA Field Guide 40, pp 392–401.  https://doi.org/10.1130/2015.0040(10)
  115. McGee W (1890) Encroachments of the sea. The Forum 9:437–449Google Scholar
  116. Meade R (1969) Landward transport of bottom sediments in estuaries of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. J Sedim Petrol 39:222–234Google Scholar
  117. Miner M et al (2009a) Chapter D. Historical (1869-2007) sea floor evolution and sediment dynamics along the Chandeleur Islands. In: Lavoie D (ed) Sand resources, regional geology, and coastal processes of the Chandeleur Islands coastal system—an evaluation of the Breton National Wildlife Refuge. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 47-74Google Scholar
  118. Miner M et al (2009b) Hurricane-associated ebb-tidal delta sediment dynamics. Geology 37:851–854CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Mitrovica J, Milne G (2002) On the origin of late Holocene sea-level highstands within equatorial ocean basins. Quat Sci Rev 21:2179–2190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Moore LJ, List JH, Williams SJ, Stolper D (2010) Complexities in barrier island response to sea-level rise: insights from model experiments. J Geophys Res Earth Surf.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JF001299
  121. Morris J et al (2002) Responses of coastal wetlands to rising sea level. Ecology 83:2869–2877CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Morton R (2003) Morphological impacts of extreme storms on sandy beaches and barriers. J Coast Res 19:560–573Google Scholar
  123. Morton R (2008) Historical changes in the Mississippi-Alabama barrier-island chain and the roles of extreme storms, sea level, and human activities. J Coast Res 24:1587–1600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Morton RA, Bernier JC, Barras JA, Ferina NF (2005) Rapid subsidence and historical wetland loss in the south-central Mississippi delta plain: likely causes and future implications. U.S. Geological Survey Open-file Report 2005–1216. http://www.pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1216
  125. Morton R, Bernier JC, Barras JA (2006) Evidence of regional subsidence and associated interior wetland loss induced by hydrocarbon production, Gulf Coast region, USA. Environ Geol 50:261–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Mota Oliveira I (1970) Natural flushing ability in tidal inlets. In: Am. Soc. Civ. Eng., Proc. 12th Coastal Eng. Conf., Washington, DC, pp 1827–1845Google Scholar
  127. Mudd S et al (2004) Flow, sedimentation, and biomass production on a vegetated salt marsh in South Carolina: toward a predictive model of marsh morphologic and ecologic evolution. Ecogeomorphol Tidal Marshes Coast Estuar Stud 59:165–187Google Scholar
  128. Mudd S, D’Alpaos A, Morris J (2010) How does vegetation affect sedimentation on tidal marshes? Investigating particle capture and hydrodynamic controls on biologically mediated sedimentation. J Geophys Res 115Google Scholar
  129. Muller R, Stone G (2001) A climatology of tropical storm and hurricane strikes to enhance vulnerability prediction for the Southeast U.S. Coast. J Coast Res 17:949–956Google Scholar
  130. National Research Council (1972) Committee on the Alaska Earthquake of the Division of Earth Sciences, 1972. The Great Alaska Earthquake of 1964: oceanography and coastal engineering. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  131. Neubauer S (2008) Contributions of mineral and organic components to tidal freshwater marsh accretion. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 78:78–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Nicholls R et al (2007) Coastal systems and low-lying areas. Climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Parry M, et al. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp 315–356Google Scholar
  133. Niedoroda A, Swift D (1981) Maintenance of the shoreface by wave orbital currents and mean floe: observations from the long island coast. Geophys Res Lett 8:337–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Nummedal D, Stephen M (1976) Coastal dynamics and sediment transportation, Northeast Gulf of Alaska. Geology 12Google Scholar
  135. Nyman JA, Carloss M, DeLaune RD, Patrick WH Jr (1994) Erosion rather than plant dieback as the mechanism of marsh loss in an estuarine marsh. Earth Surf Process Landf 19:69–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. O’Brien M (1931) Estuary tidal prisms related to entrance areas. Civil Eng 1:738–739Google Scholar
  137. Oertel G, Kraft J (1994) New Jersey and Delmarva barrier islands. In: Davis R (ed) Geology of Holocene barrier island systems. Springer, Berlin, pp 207–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Ortiz AC, Roy S, Edmonds DA (2017) Land loss by pond expansion on the Mississippi River Delta Plain. Geophys Res Lett 44:3635–3642.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2017GL073079 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Palmer M et al (2004) Observations of particle capture on a cylindrical collector: implications for particle accumulation and removal in aquatic systems. Limnol Oceanogr 49:76–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Penland S, Boyd R, Suter J (1988) Transgressive depositional systems of the Mississippi Delta Plain: a model for barrier shoreline and shelf sand development. J Sediment Petrol 58:932–949Google Scholar
  141. Penland S et al (1989) Holocene sand shoals offshore of the Mississippi River Delta plain. Gulf Coast Assoc Geol Soc Trans 39:471–480Google Scholar
  142. Penland S, Ramsey KE (1990) Relative sea-level rise in Louisiana and the Gulf of Mexico. J Coast Res 2:323–342Google Scholar
  143. Plafker G (1969) Tectonics of the March 27, 1964 Alaska Earthquake. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 543:74Google Scholar
  144. Priestas AM, Mariotti G, Leonardi N, Fagherazzi S (2015) Coupled wave energy and erosion dynamics along a salt marsh boundary, Hog Island Bay, Virginia, USA. J Mar Sci Eng 3:1041–1065.  https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse3031041 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Proosdij V, Davidson-Arnott R, Ollerhead J (2006) Controls on spatial patterns of sediment deposition across a macro-tidal salt marsh surface over single tidal cycles. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 69:64–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Redfield A, Rubin M (1962) Age of salt marsh peat in relation to recent changes in sea level. Science 136:328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Reimnitz E (1966) Late Quaternary history and sedimentation of the Copper River Delta and Vicinity, Alaska. Thesis, Scripps Institute of Oceanography, La Jolla, California. UnpublishedGoogle Scholar
  148. Reimnitz E, Marshall N (1965) Effects of the Alaska Earthquake and Tsunami on recent deltaic sediments. J Geophys Res 70:2363–2376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Rice T, Niedoroda A, Pratt A (1976) The coastal processes and geology: Virginia Barrier Islands. Virginia coast reserve study: ecosystem description 117–388Google Scholar
  150. Richards (1934) The salt marshes of the Dovey Estuary. Ann Bot 1:225–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Richardson T (2012) Morphodynamic changes of the Parramore-Cedar barrier island system and Wachapreague Inlet, Virginia from 1852 to 2011: a model of barrier island and tidal inlet evolution along the southern Delmarva Peninsula, USA. Ph.D. thesis. Fairfax, George Mason University, 306 pGoogle Scholar
  152. Rieu R, van Heteren S, Van Der Spek AJ, De Boer PL (2005) Development and preservation of a mid-Holocene tidal-channel network offshore the Western Netherlands. J Sediment Geol 75:409–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Roberts H (1997) Dynamic changes of the Holocene Mississippi river delta plain: the delta cycle. J Coast Res 13:605–637Google Scholar
  154. Roos PC, Schuttelaars HM, Brouwer RL (2013) Observations of barrier island length explained using an exploratory morphodynamic model. Geophys Res Lett 40:4338–4343.  https://doi.org/10.1002/grl.50843 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Rosati J, Ebersole B (1996) Littoral impact of Ocean City Inlet, Maryland, USA. Coast Eng Proc 1:25Google Scholar
  156. Rosati J, Dean R, Stone G (2010) A cross-shore model of barrier island migration over a compressible substrate. Mar Geol 271:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Rosati J, Dean R, Walton T (2013) The modified Brunn rule extended for landward transport. Mar Geol 340:71–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Sallenger A, Wright C, Howd P, Doran K, Guy K (2009) Extreme coastal changes on the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, during and after Hurricane Katrina. In: Lavoie D (ed) Sand resources, regional geology, and coastal processes of the Chandeleur islands coastal system: an evaluation of the Breton National Wildlife Refuge. U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, CO, pp 27–36Google Scholar
  159. Schwab W et al (2013) Geologic evidence for onshore sediment transport from the inner continental shelf: Fire Island, New York. J Coast Res 29:526–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Schwimmer R (2001) Rates and processes of marsh shoreline erosion in Rehoboth Bay, Delaware, U.S.A. J Coast Res 17:672–683Google Scholar
  161. Silliman B et al (2012) Degradation and resilience in Louisiana salt marshes after the BP-Deepwater Horizons oil spill. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:11234–11239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Silvestri S, Defina A, Marani M (2005) Tidal regime, salinity and salt marsh plant zonation. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 62:119–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Smith J, FitzGerald D (1994) Sediment transport patterns at the Essex River Inlet Ebb-Tidal Delta, Massachusetts, U.S.A. J Coast Res 10:752–774Google Scholar
  164. Snedden J, Nummedal D, Amos A (1988) Storm- and fair-weather combined flow on the Central Texas continental shelf. J Sediment Res 58:580–595Google Scholar
  165. Stauble D (1997) Ocean City, Maryland and Vicinity water resources study. Draft integrated feasibility report and environmental impact statement. US Army Engineer District, Baltimore, Baltimore, MDGoogle Scholar
  166. Stauble D (2001) Morphodynamic evaluation of a highly dynamic inlet to improve channel navigation: Chatham Harbor Massachusetts, USA. Coast Dyn 1:232–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Stauble D et al (1993) Beach nourishment response and design evaluation: Ocean City, Maryland. Coastal Engineering Research Center, Vicksburg, MSGoogle Scholar
  168. Stefanon L et al (2012) Signatures of sea level changes on tidal geomorphology: experiments on network incision and retreat. Geophys Res Lett 39Google Scholar
  169. Stevenson J, Kearney M, Pendleton E (1985) Sedimentation and erosion in a Chesapeake Bay brackish marsh system. Mar Geol 67:213–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Stive M et al (2009) Empirical relationships between tidal inlet cross sections and tidal prism: a review. In: Mizuguchi M (ed) Proceedings of the conference on coastal dynamics, Tokyo, Japan 1:1–10Google Scholar
  171. Stoddart R, Reed D, French J (1989) Understanding salt-marsh accretion, Scolt Head Island, Norfolk, England. Estuar Coast 12:228–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Stolper D, List JH, Thieler ER (2005) Simulating the evolution of coastal morphology and stratigraphy with a new morphological-behavior model (GEOMBEST). Mar Geol 218:17–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Stone GW, Sheremet A, Zhang X, Braud D (2003) Coastal landloss and wave-surge predictions during hurricanes in Coastal Louisiana: implications for the oil and gas industry. Report prepared for Louisiana Department of Natural Resources, Minerals Management Service, and U.S. Geological Survey, 61pGoogle Scholar
  174. Stone, G. and Orford, J. 2004, Storms and their significance in coastal morphosedimentary dynamics: Marine Geology, v. 210, nos. 1–4, p. 1–362.Google Scholar
  175. Stumpf R (1983) The process of sedimentation on the surface of a salt marsh. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 17:495–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Temmerman S et al (2003) Modeling long-term tidal marsh growth under changing tidal conditions and suspended sediment concentrations, Scheldt estuary, Belgium. Mar Geol 193:151–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Temmerman S et al (2007) Vegetation causes channel erosion in a tidal landscape. Geology 35:631–634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Torio D, Chmura GL (2015) Impact of sea level rise on tidal marsh as fish habitat. Estuar Coasts 38:1288–1303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Törnqvist T et al (2008) Mississippi delta subsidence primarily caused by compaction of Holocene strata. Nat Geosci 1:173–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Trosclair KJ (2013) Wave transformation at a saltmarsh edge and resulting marsh edge erosion: observations and modeling. Department of Earth and Environmental Science, University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations, 134 pGoogle Scholar
  181. Tran T et al (2012) Cross-sectional stability of tidal inlets: a comparison between numerical and empirical approaches. Coast Eng 60:21–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Underwood S, Hiland M (1995) Historical development of Ocean City Inlet ebb shoal and its effect on Northern Assateague Island. U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Coastal Engineering Research Center, Vicksburg, MS. 128pGoogle Scholar
  183. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (1998) Ocean City, Maryland, and vicinity water resources study final integrated feasibility report and environmental impact statement, Appendix D, Restoration of Assateague Island, Baltimore, MarylandGoogle Scholar
  184. Van der Koppel J et al (2005) Self-organization and vegetation collapse in salt marsh ecosystems. Am Nat 165Google Scholar
  185. van der Wegen M (2013) Numerical modeling of the impact of sea level rise on tidal basin morphodynamics. J Geophys Res Earth Surf 118:447–460.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jgrf.20034 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Van Goor M et al (2003) Impact of sea-level rise on the morphological equilibrium state of tidal inlets. Mar Geol 202:211–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. van Heteren S, van de Plassche O (1997) Influence of relative sea-level change and tidal-inlet development on barrier-spit stratigraphy, Sandy Neck, MA. J Sediment Res 67:350–363Google Scholar
  188. Van Proosdij D et al (2005) Monitoring seasonal changes in surface elevation of intertidal environments near the Windsor Causeway. Final report prepared for the Nova Scotia Department of TransportationGoogle Scholar
  189. Walters D et al (2014) Interactions between barrier islands and back-barrier marshes affect island system response to sea level rise: Insights from a coupled model. J Geophys Res Earth Surf 119:2013–2031. https://doi.org/10.1002/2014jf003091Google Scholar
  190. Walton T, Adams W (1976) Capacity of inlet outer ears to store sand. In: Proceedings of the 15th conference on coastal engineering, Honolulu, HawaiiGoogle Scholar
  191. Whittaker R (ed) (1975) Communities and ecosystems, 2nd edn. Macmillan, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  192. Williams J (1992) USGS Research Contributes to Assateague Island Restoration—Mitigating 70 Years of Coastal Erosion Due to Ocean City Inlet Jetties, Sound Waves, USGS Pub. U. S. Department of the InteriorGoogle Scholar
  193. Wilson CA, Allison MA (2008) An equilibrium profile model for retreating marsh shorelines in southeast Louisiana. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 80(4):483–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Wilson CA et al (2013) Marsh pool and tidal creek morphodynamics: dynamic equilibrium of northern saltmarshes? Geomorphology 213:99–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Wolinsky MA, Murray AB (2009) A unifying framework for shoreline migration: 2. Application to wave-dominated coasts. J Geophys Res 114:F01009.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JF000856 Google Scholar
  196. Wright S (2012) Understanding the mechanisms behind surface elevation loss in ditched marshes. Master’s Thesis, Department of Earth Sciences, Boston University, Boston, 125 pGoogle Scholar
  197. Yu S, Törnqvist T, Hu P (2012) Quantifying Holocene lithospheric subsidence rates underneath the Mississippi. Earth Planet Sci Lett 331:21–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Duncan M. FitzGerald
    • 1
    Email author
  • Christopher J. Hein
    • 2
  • Zoe Hughes
    • 1
    • 3
  • Mark Kulp
    • 4
  • Ioannis Georgiou
    • 4
  • Michael Miner
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Earth and Environmental SciencesBoston UniversityBostonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Physical SciencesVirginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and MaryGloucester PointUSA
  3. 3.Department of Biology and BiochemistryUniversity of HoustonHoustonUSA
  4. 4.Department of Earth and Environmental SciencesUniversity of New OrleansNew OrleansUSA
  5. 5.Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Gulf of Mexico RegionNew OrleansUSA

Personalised recommendations