Advertisement

Earthquake Preparedness Policy in Nepal

  • Volker Schneider
  • Antje Witting
Conference paper
Part of the Springer Natural Hazards book series (SPRINGERNAT)

Abstract

Earthquake preparedness policy is described as a faltering policy process in Nepal. By reconstructing a chain of policy events at the national and international level, it is shown that relevant policy knowledge was already available by international networks in the early 1990s and was also used for national policy initiatives at that time. Effective building regulation, however, was introduced only late and inconsistently. The sluggish and faltering policy process is essentially explained by (1) a cultural and developmental context in which governments are overloaded with clashing problems, displacing creeping policy issues; (2) endemic policy discontinuity and inconsistency generated by political instability; (3) weak infrastructural power in which public administration is unable to implement policy choices on the ground; (4) rampant corruption, slowing down consistent policy enforcement and compliance with building regulation.

Keywords

Public policy Actor constellations Policy networks Building regulation Policy discontinuity Infrastructural power Governance Political instability Corruption 

References

  1. Aitsi-Selmi A, Egawa S, Sasaki H, Wannous C, Murray V (2015) The Sendai framework for disaster risk reduction: renewing the global commitment to people’s resilience, health, and well-being. Int J Disaster Risk Sci 6:164–176. doi: 10.1007/s13753-015-0050-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bhandari S (2014) Self-determination and constitution making in Nepal: constituent assembly, inclusion, and ethnic federalism. Springer, SingaporeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bhatta P (2012) Global ranking a dream too far for Nepal’s long-degraded universities. http://www.universityworldnews.com/article.php?story=20120328082036102. Accessed 1 Jul 2016
  4. CBS (2014) Statistical pocket book of Nepal. Government of Nepal, Central Bureau of StatisticsGoogle Scholar
  5. CIA (2015) World fact books 1985–2015. http://www.theodora.com/wfb/abc_world_fact_book.html. Accessed 3 Jun 2017
  6. Committee to Protect Journalists (2012) Getting away with murder. https://www.cpj.org/reports/2012/04/impunity-index-2012.php. Accessed 15 Mar 2017
  7. Dash K (1996) The political economy of regional cooperation in South Asia. Pac Aff 69:185–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Department of Urban Development and Building Construction (1994) National building codes. http://www.dudbc.gov.np/buildingcode. Accessed 20 Jun 2006
  9. Department of Urban Development and Building Construction (2003) National building codes. http://www.dudbc.gov.np/buildingcode. Accessed 20 Jun 2016
  10. Dixit A, Dwelley-Samant L, Nakarmi M, Pradhanang S (2000) The Kathmandu Valley earthquake risk management project: an evaluation. In: 12WCEE2000. New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, Upper Hutt, New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  11. Djalante R (2012) Review article: adaptive governance and resilience: the role of multi-stakeholder platforms in disaster risk reduction. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 12:2923–2942. doi: 10.5194/nhess-12-2923-2012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Freedom House (2017) About freedom in the world. Freedom House Data. Country and Territory Ratings and Statuses, 1972–2016. https://freedomhouse.org/report-types/freedom-world. Accessed 6 Mar 2017
  13. Government of Nepal (2015) Post disaster needs assessment—Volume B. http://un.org.np/sites/default/files/PDNA-volume-B.pdf. Accessed 1 Feb 2016
  14. Government of Nepal, Ministry of Physical Planning and Works, Earthquake Risk Reduction and Recovery Preparedness Programme for Nepal (2009) Recommendation for update of Nepal national building code. http://errrp.org.np/document/study_report/NBC Update-Final Report-Building Code July 15 09.pdf. Accessed 15 Aug 2016
  15. Gurung R (2011) Journalism in transition. http://www.ifp-ew.eu/pdf/201110IfPEWJournTransMediaInfoConflict.Nepal.pdf. Accessed 1 Feb 2016
  16. Hagen T (2012) Decentralization and development: the role of democratic principles. Ratna Pustak Bhandar, KathmanduGoogle Scholar
  17. Harat A, Chojnacki M, Leksowski K (2015) Humanitarian aid of the European Union and United Nations: actions, responsibilities, and finances. Bull Geogr Socio 65–73. doi: 10.1515/bog-2015-0025
  18. Hollis S (2014) The global construction of EU development policy. J Eur Integr 36:567–583. doi: 10.1080/07036337.2014.902943
  19. Howlett M, Ramesh M (1995) Studying public policy: policy cycles and policy subsystems. Oxford University Press, Toronto [u.a.]Google Scholar
  20. INFORM (2017) Index for risk management—Results 2017. http://www.inform-index.org/..  Accessed 6 Mar 2017
  21. Karki TK, Lu B (2015) What makes a big and difficult policy enforcement possible? A success story from Kathmandu Metropolitan City. Habitat Int 49:386–392. doi: 10.1016/j.habitatint.2015.06.011
  22. Kaufmann D, Kraay A, Mastruzzi M (2011) The worldwide governance indicators: methodology and analytical issues. Hague J Rule Law 3:220–246. doi: 10.1017/S1876404511200046 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Keefer P, Neumayer E, Plümper T (2011) Earthquake propensity and the politics of mortality prevention. World Dev 39:1530–1541. doi: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2011.02.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kenis P, Schneider V (1991) Policy networks and policy analysis: scrutinizing a new analytical toolbox. In: Mayntz R, Marin B (eds) Policy networks. Empirical evidence and theoretical considerations. Campus-Verlag, Frankfurt/M., pp 25–59Google Scholar
  25. Kumasaki M, King M, Arai M, Yang L (2016) Anatomy of cascading natural disasters in Japan: main modes and linkages. Nat Hazards 80:1425–1441. doi: 10.1007/s11069-015-2028-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lamichhane HR (2012) Fiscal federalism and local government finance in Nepal. Master’s Thesis. Tribhuvan University, NepalGoogle Scholar
  27. Lecours A, Arban E (2015) Why federalism does not always take shape: the cases of Italy and Nepal. Reg Fed Stud 25:183–201. doi: 10.1080/13597566.2015.1011138 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Liu B, Siu YL, Mitchell G, Xu W (2016) The danger of mapping risk from multiple natural hazards. Nat Hazards 82:139–153. doi: 10.1007/s11069-016-2184-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Malla RB, Kayastha K, Sharma S, Ojha SP (2015) Earthquake preparedness and disaster relief in Nepal. American Society of Nepalese EngineersGoogle Scholar
  30. Mann M (2008) Infrastructural power revisited. Stud Comp Int Dev 43:355–365. doi: 10.1007/s12116-008-9027-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Marshall MG, Gurr TR (2014) Polity IV project: political regime characteristics and transitions. Polity IV annual time-series, 1800–2015. http://www.systemicpeace.org/inscr/p4ch2015.xls. Accessed 8 Mar 2017
  32. Mayntz R (2003) New challenges to governance theory. In: Bang HP (ed) Governance as social and political communication. Manchester University Press, Manchester, pp 27–40Google Scholar
  33. Ministry of Home Affairs (2009) National progress report on the implementation of the Hyogo Framework for Action (2007–2009). http://www.preventionweb.net/english/countries/asia/npl/. Accessed 3 Feb 2016
  34. Ministry of Home Affairs (2011a) Nepal disaster report: policies, practices and lessons. http://www.moha.gov.np/uploads/document/file/Nepal_Disaster_Report_2011_20130904031242.pdf. Accessed 1 Feb 2016
  35. Ministry of Home Affairs (2011b) National progress report on the implementation of the Hyogo Framework for action (2009–2011). http://www.preventionweb.net/english/professional/policies/v.php?id=15615. Accessed 3 Feb 2016
  36. Ministry of Home Affairs (2015a) National progress report on the implementation of the Hyogo Framework for Action (2013–2015). http://www.preventionweb.net/english/professional/policies/v.php?id=41755. Accessed 3 Feb 2016
  37. Ministry of Home Affairs (2015b) Disaster Report 2015. KathmanduGoogle Scholar
  38. National Society for Earthquake Technology Nepal (2008) National Strategy for Disaster Risk Management (NSDRM). http://www.nrcs.org/sites/default/files/pro-doc/NSDRMNepal.pdf. Accessed 1 Feb 2016
  39. Nepal Red Cross Society, International Federation of Red Cross and Red Cross Crescent Societies (2011) Nepal—laws, policies, planning and practices on international disaster response. http://www.ifrc.org/PageFiles/134443/idrl-nepal.pdf. Accessed 1 Feb 2016
  40. Oxfam (2015) Efforts of Nepal towards building a disaster resilient country. https://www.sheltercluster.org/sites/default/files/docs/b.gadal-_efforts_of_nepal_towards_building_a_disaster_resilient_country.pdf. Accessed 1 Feb 2016
  41. Pokhrel D, Bhandari BS, Viraraghavan T (2009) Natural hazards and environmental implications in Nepal. Disaster Prev Manag 18:478–489. doi: 10.1108/09653560911003679 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Prasad SR (2015) Urbanization, earthquake vulnerabilities & national building code. IJSRR 4:47–63Google Scholar
  43. Rinscheid A (2015) Crisis, policy discourse, and major policy change: exploring the role of subsystem polarization in nuclear energy policymaking. Eur Policy Anal 1:34–70Google Scholar
  44. Schneider V (2012) Governance and complexity. In: Levi-Faur David (ed) The Oxford handbook of governance. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 129–142Google Scholar
  45. Schneider V (2015) Relationalism in political theory and research: the challenge of networked politics and policy-making. Przegląd Politol 3:191–206Google Scholar
  46. Schneider V, Leifeld P, Malang T (2013) Coping with creeping catastrophes: national political systems and the challenge of slow-moving policy problems. In: Siebenhüner B, Arnold M, Eisenack K, Jacob K (eds) Long-term governance for social-ecological change. Routledge, New York, pp 221–238Google Scholar
  47. Shah H, Katayama T, Rynn J (1993) An international connection—WSSI: “World Seismic Safety Initiative”. Bull New Zeal Natl Soc Earthq Eng 26:445–450Google Scholar
  48. Sharma K (2012) Politics and governance in Nepal. Asia Pacific J Public Adm 34:57–69. doi: 10.1080/23276665.2012.10779387 Google Scholar
  49. Stone D (2004) Transfer agents and global networks in the “transnationalization” of policy. J Eur Public Policy 11:545–566. doi: 10.1080/13501760410001694291 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. The World Bank (2016) Worldwide governance indicators|databank. www.govindicators.org. Accessed 6 Mar 2017
  51. The World Bank (2017) World development indicators|data. http://data.worldbank.org/data-catalog/world-development-indicators. Accessed 6 Mar 2017
  52. Tozier de la Poterie A, Baudoin M-A (2015) From Yokohama to Sendai: approaches to participation in international disaster risk reduction frameworks. Int J Disaster Risk Sci 6:128–139. doi: 10.1007/s13753-015-0053-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. UNDP (2015a) World development report 2015. Work for human development. http://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/librarypage/hdr/2015-human-development-report/. Accessed 1 Oct 2016
  54. UNDP (2015b) Annual report 2015. UNDP in Nepal. http://www.np.undp.org/content/dam/nepal/docs/reports/annual_reports/UNDP Annual Report 2015 March 30 2016 Final.pdf. Accessed 1 Oct 2016
  55. USGS (2017) United States geological survey data on earthquakes. Largest earthquakes, significant events, lists and maps by magnitude/year/location. https://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/. Accessed 6 Mar 2017
  56. Versluys H (2009) Europe’s global role: external policies of the european union—Google books. In: Orbie J (ed) Europe’s global role: external policies of the European Union. Ashgate, SurreyGoogle Scholar
  57. Whelpton J (2005) A history of Nepal. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of KonstanzKonstanzGermany

Personalised recommendations