Gait Stability During Shod and Barefoot Walking and Running on a Treadmill Assessed by Correlation Entropy

  • Michael StöcklEmail author
  • Peter F. Lamb
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 663)


This study tests correlation entropy, \(K_2\), as a measure of stability for gait analysis. An average of 13 strides from 10 participants in each combination of one footwear (barefoot vs shod) condition and one gait mode (walking vs running) were collected during treadmill walking and running. Sagittal plane ankle, knee and hip angular displacement and velocity data were used for analysis. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA showed a main effect for gait mode (\(p=.03\)) – running had lower \(K_2\) than walking, indicating higher stability. Although the sample of strides and participants was small, we speculate that the greater inertia for running helped stabilize movement control, making the running coordination pattern more resilient against small stride-to-stride perturbations.


Correlation entropy Gait Biomechanics Dynamical systems 



We thank Divya Adhia for her help with data collection and cleaning. We also acknowledge the support of the University of Otago Research Grant for allowing us to collect the pilot data used in the current study.


  1. 1.
    Bartlett, R.M., Lamb, P.F., O’Donovan, D., Kennedy, G.: Use of self-organizing maps for exploring coordination variability in the transition between walking and running. Int. J. Comp. Psychol. 27(2) (2014)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Buzzi, U.H., Stergiou, N., Kurz, M.J., Hageman, P.A., Heidel, J.: Nonlinear dynamics indicates aging affects variability during gait. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 18(5), 435–443 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cheung, R., Rainbow, M.: Landing pattern and vertical loading rates during first attempt of barefoot running in habitual shod runners. Hum. Mov. Sci. 34, 120–127 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    De Wit, B., De Clercq, D.: Timing of lower extremity motions during barefoot and shod running at three velocities. J App Biomech 16(2), 169–179 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    De Wit, B., De Clercq, D., Aerts, P.: Biomechanical analysis of the stance phase during barefoot and shod running. J. Biomech. 33(3), 269–278 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Diedrich, F.J., Warren, W.H.: Why change gaits? Dynamics of the walk-run transition. J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. 21(1), 183–202 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dingwell, J.: Lyapunov exponents. In: Akay, M. (ed.) Wiley Encyclopedia of Biomedical Engineering. Wiley, Hoboken (2006)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dingwell, J., Cusumano, J., Sternad, D., Cavanagh, P.R.: Slower speeds in patients with diabetic neuropathy lead to improved local dynamic stability of continuous overground walking. J. Biomech. 33(10), 1269–1277 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dingwell, J.B., Cusumano, J.P.: Nonlinear time series analysis of normal and pathological human walking. Chaos: Interdisc. J. Nonlinear Sci. 10(4), 848–863 (2000)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    England, S.A., Granata, K.P.: The influence of gait speed on local dynamic stability of walking. Gait Posture 25(2), 172–178 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hamill, J., Russell, E.M., Gruber, A.H., Miller, R.: Impact characteristics in shod and barefoot running. Footwear Sci 3(1), 33–40 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jordan, K., Challis, J.H., Cusumano, J.P., Newell, K.M.: Stability and the time-dependent structure of gait variability in walking and running. Hum. Mov. Sci. 28(1), 113–128 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jordan, K., Challis, J.H., Newell, K.M.: Speed influences on the scaling behavior of gait cycle fluctuations during treadmill running. Hum. Mov. Sci. 26(1), 87–102 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jordan, K., Challis, J.H., Newell, K.M.: Walking speed influences on gait cycle variability. Gait Posture 26(1), 128–134 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Latash, M.L.: The bliss (not the problem) of motor abundance (not redundancy). Exp. Brain Res. 217(1), 1–5 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Latt, M.D., Menz, H.B., Fung, V.S., Lord, S.R.: Walking speed, cadence and step length are selected to optimize the stability of head and pelvis accelerations. Exp. Brain Res. 184(2), 201–209 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Marwan, N., Romano, M.C., Thiel, M., Kurths, J.: Recurrence plots for the analysis of complex systems. Phys. Rep. 438(5), 237–329 (2007)CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Owings, T.M., Grabiner, M.D.: Variability of step kinematics in young and older adults. Gait Posture 20(1), 26–29 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Robertson, D.G., Caldwell, G.E., Hamill, J., Kamen, G., Whittlesey, S.N.: Research methods in biomechanics, 2nd edn. Human Kinetics, Champaign (2014)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Robertson, D.G., Dowling, J.J.: Design and responses of Butterworth and critically damped digital filters. J. Electromyogr. Kinesiol. 13(6), 569–573 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ruelle, D.: An inequality for the entropy of differentiable maps. Bull. Braz. Math. Soc. 9(1), 83–87 (1978)CrossRefzbMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Shakoor, N., Block, J.: Walking barefoot decreases loading on the lower extremity joints in knee osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheumatol 54(9), 2923–2927 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Thiel, M., Romano, M.C., Read, P., Kurths, J.: Estimation of dynamical invariants without embedding by recurrence plots. Chaos 14(2), 234–243 (2004)CrossRefzbMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of ViennaViennaAustria
  2. 2.University of OtagoDunedinNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations