A User-Centric System for Verified Identities on the Bitcoin Blockchain

  • Daniel Augot
  • Hervé Chabanne
  • Thomas Chenevier
  • William GeorgeEmail author
  • Laurent Lambert
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10436)


We present an identity management scheme built into the Bitcoin blockchain, allowing for identities that are as indelible as the blockchain itself. Moreover, we take advantage of Bitcoin’s decentralized nature to facilitate a shared control between users and identity providers, allowing users to directly manage their own identities, fluidly coordinating identities from different providers, even as identity providers can revoke identities and impose controls.


Bitcoin blockchain Identity proofs Discrete Logarithm REPresentation (DLREP) Personal Identity Management Systems (PIMS) 



The work leading to this paper has received funding from the European Community’s Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under Grant Agreement n\(^{\circ }\) 607049.


  1. 1.
    CryptID. Source code Consulted April 2017.
  2. 2.
    IDCoins. Consulted April 2017.
  3. 3.
    Predicting Bitcoin fees for transactions, Consulted April 2017.
  4. 4.
    Estonian e-residency, Consulted March 2017.
  5. 5.
    Abiteboul, S., André, B., Kaplan, D.: Managing your digital life. Commun. ACM 58(5), 32–35 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ali, M., Nelson, J., Shea, R., Freedman, M.J.: Blockstack: a global naming and storage system secured by blockchains. In: 2016 USENIX Annual Technical Conference (USENIX ATC 2016), Denver, CO, USA, June 22–24, 2016. Proceedings, pp. 181–194 (2016)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Antonopoulos, A.M.: Mastering Bitcoin. O’Reilly Media, Sebastopol (2015). ISBN: 978-1-449-37404-4Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Brands, S.: Rethinking Public Key Infrastructures and Digital Certificates (Building in Privacy). MIT Press, Cambridge (2000)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Camenisch, J., Lehmann, A., Neven, G.: Electronic identities need private credentials. IEEE Secur. Priv. 10(1), 80–83 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
  11. 11.
    Miers, I., Garman, C., Green, M.: Accountable privacy for decentralized anonymous payments. In: Financial Cryptography and Data Security (2016)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    The Bitcoin Core developers: Bitcoin transactions primitives code, Consulted March 2017.
  13. 13.
    Garay, J., Kiayias, A., Leonardos, N.: The bitcoin backbone protocol: analysis and applications. In: Oswald, E., Fischlin, M. (eds.) EUROCRYPT 2015. LNCS, vol. 9057, pp. 281–310. Springer, Heidelberg (2015). doi: 10.1007/978-3-662-46803-6_10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hardjono, T., Smith, N., (Sandy) Pentland, A.: Anonymous identities for permissioned blockchains, January 2016.
  15. 15.
    Hay, S.: Bitcoin vs ethereum: Cryptocurrency comparison, March 2017.
  16. 16.
    Jacobovitz, O.: Blockchain for identity management, December 2016.
  17. 17.
    Liu, Y., Tome, W., Zhang, L., Choffnes, D.R., Levin, D., Maggs, B.M., Mislove, A., Schulman, A., Wilson, C.: An end-to-end measurement of certificate revocation in the web’s PKI. In: Proceedings of the 2015 ACM Internet Measurement Conference, IMC 2015, Tokyo, Japan, October 28–30, 2015, pp. 183–196 (2015)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nakamoto, S.: Bitcoin: a peer-to-peer electronic cash system (2008).
  19. 19.
    Narayanan, A., Bonneau, J., Felten, E., Miller, A., Goldfeder, S.: Bitcoin and Cryptocurrency Technologies: A Comprehensive Introduction. Princeton University Press, Princeton (2016)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nazaré, J., Hamilton, K., Schmidt, P.: Digital certificates project. Source code Consulted December 2016.
  21. 21.
    Office of the Privacy Commissionner of Canada. Privacy and your reputation - who shapes your identity online? (2012)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pass, R., Seeman, L., Shelat, A.: Analysis of the blockchain protocol in asynchronous networks. In: Coron, J.-S., Nielsen, J.B. (eds.) EUROCRYPT 2017. LNCS, vol. 10211, pp. 643–673. Springer, Cham (2017). doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-56614-6_22CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Prisco, G.: Estonian government partnerts with bitnation to offer blockchain notarization services to e-residents, November 2015.
  24. 24.
    Security Team: Specification of the identity mixer cryptographic library version 2.3.0. Technical report RZ 3730, IBM Research, Computer Science Dept, IBM Research - Zurich, Switzerland, 48 pages (2010)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Torpey, K.: Are bitcoin miners making more money off small blocks? March 2017.
  26. 26.
    Wood, G.: Ethereum: a secure decentralised generalised transaction ledger, EIP-150 REVISION (030c1b5 - 10 July 2017).
  27. 27.
    Yang, D., Gavigan, J., Wilcox-O’Hearn, Z.: Survey of confidentiality and privacy preserving technologies for blockchains, November 2016.
  28. 28.
    Zyskind, G., Nathan, O., Pentland, A.: Decentralizing privacy: using blockchain to protect personal data. In: 2015 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy Workshops, SPW 2015, San Jose, CA, USA, May 21–22, 2015, pp. 180–184. IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos (2015)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel Augot
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Hervé Chabanne
    • 4
    • 5
  • Thomas Chenevier
    • 4
  • William George
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Laurent Lambert
    • 4
  1. 1.INRIAPalaiseauFrance
  2. 2.Laboratoire LIX, École Polytechnique and CNRS UMR 7161PalaiseauFrance
  3. 3.Université Paris-SaclayParisFrance
  4. 4.OT-MorphoIssy-les-MoulineauxFrance
  5. 5.Télécom ParisTechParisFrance

Personalised recommendations