Eye Movement Traits in Differentiating Experts and Laymen
There is much research indicating that eye tracking methods are a promising approach which can be used in revealing experts’ visual patterns and acquiring information regarding their subconscious behaviour while making decisions in professional tasks. The studies presented in this paper extend the aforementioned investigations and were aimed at checking the possibility of differentiating experts and laymen based on their eye movement characteristics. For this purpose, an experiment in the radiology field was chosen. The studies revealed not only significant differences between visual patterns of the analysed groups but also demonstrated that distinguishing experts from novices based on their eye movements is feasible. The classification performance was high and, dependent on the method applied for defining the test set, amounted to 85% or 93% correctly-classified subjects. The investigation concerning the possibility of recognizing who was performing the experiment task—an expert or layman—showed that dependent on the radiology image explored—the performance in the majority of cases was between 79% and 93%.
The research presented in this paper was partially supported by the Silesian University of Technology Rector’s Pro-Quality Grant 02/020/RGJ17/0103 and by the Silesian University of Technology grant BK/263/RAu2/2016.
- 1.Bekkar, M., Djemaa, H.K., Alitouche, T.A.: Evaluation measures for models assessment over imbalanced data sets. J. Inf. Eng. Appl. 3(10), 27–38 (2013)Google Scholar
- 2.Bernal, J., Sánchez, F.J., Vilariño, F., Arnold, M., Ghosh, A., Lacey, G.: Experts vs. novices: applying eye-tracking methodologies in colonoscopy video screening for polyp search. In: ETRA 2014, Safety Harbor, USA, pp. 223–226 (2014)Google Scholar
- 3.Cerrolaza, J.J., Villanueva, A., Cabeza, R.: Study of polynomial mapping functions in video-oculography eye trackers. ACM Trans. Comput. Hum. Interact. 19(2), 10:1–10:25 (2012)Google Scholar
- 5.van der Gijp, A., Ravesloot, C., Jarodzka, H., van der Schaaf, M., van der Schaaf, I., van Schaik, J., ten Cate, T.J.: How visual search relates to visual diagnostic performance: a narrative systematic review of eye-tracking research in radiology. Adv. Health Sci. Educ. 22, 1–23 (2016)Google Scholar
- 6.Harezlak, K., Kasprowski, P.: Evaluating quality of dispersion based fixation detection algorithm. In: ISCIS 2014, Krakow, Poland, pp. 97–104 (2014)Google Scholar
- 8.Holmqvist, K., Nyström, M., Andersson, R., Dewhurst, R., Jarodzka, H., Van de Weijer, J.: Eye Tracking: A Comprehensive Guide to Methods and Measures. Oxford University Press, Oxford (2011)Google Scholar
- 12.Nivala, M., Hauser, F., Mottok, J., Gruber, H.: Developing visual expertise in software engineering: an eye tracking study. In: EDUCON 2016, pp. 613–620. Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (2016)Google Scholar
- 13.Panchuk, D., Vine, S., Vickers, J.N.: Eye tracking methods in sport expertise. In: J. Baker, D. Farrow (eds.) Routledge Handbook of Sport Expertise, Routledge, pp. 176–187 (2015)Google Scholar
- 14.Provost, F.J., Fawcett, T.: Analysis and visualization of classifier performance: comparison under imprecise class and cost distributions. In: KDD 1997, vol. 97, Newport Beach, pp. 43–48 (1997)Google Scholar
- 15.Reingold, E.M., Sheridan, H.: Eye movements and visual expertise in chess and medicine. In: Oxford Handbook on Eye Movements, pp. 528–550 (2011)Google Scholar
- 16.Salvucci, D.D., Goldberg, J.H.: Identifying fixations and saccades in eye-tracking protocols. In: ETRA 2000, Palm Beach Gardens, USA, pp. 71–78 (2000)Google Scholar
- 18.The eye tribe: the eye tribe system (2016). theeyetribe.com. Accessed Mar 2017
- 19.Yang, J.H., Kennedy, Q., Sullivan, J., Ronald, D., Fricker, J.: Scan patterns on overland navigation in varying route difficulty: is total-flight-hours (TFH) a good measure of expertise? In: HFES 2012, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 1406–1410 (2012)Google Scholar