Advertisement

Could People with Stereo-Deficiencies Have a Rich 3D Experience Using HMDs?

Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10513)

Abstract

People with stereo-deficiencies usually have problems for the perception of depth using stereo devices. This paper presents a study that involves participants who did not have stereopsis and participants who had stereopsis. The two groups of participants were exposed to a maze navigation task in a 3D environment in two conditions, using a HMD and a large stereo screen. Fifty-nine adults participated in our study. From the results, there were no statistically significant differences for the performance on the task between the participants with stereopsis and those without stereopsis. We found statistically significant differences between the two conditions in favor of the HMD for the two groups of participants. The participants who did not have stereopsis and could not perceive 3D when looking at the Lang 1 Stereotest did have the illusion of depth perception using the HMD. The study suggests that for the people who did not have stereopsis, the head tracking largely influences the 3D experience.

Keywords

HMD Large stereo screen Virtual reality Stereopsis 3D experience Stereoblindness Stereo-deficiency Head tracking 

Notes

Acknowledgments

• This work was mainly funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO) through the CHILDMNEMOS project (TIN2012-37381-C02-01) and cofinanced by the European Regional Development Fund (FEDER).

• Other financial support was received from the Government of the Republic of Ecuador through the Scholarship Program of the Secretary of Higher Education, Science, Technology and Innovation (SENESCYT), the Conselleria d’Educació, Investigació, Cultura i Esport through the grant for consolidable research groups (2017–2018), the Government of Aragon (Department of Industry and Innovation), and the European Social Fund for Aragon.

• We would like to thank the following for their contributions:

- David Rodríguez Andrés, Mauricio Loachamín Valencia, and Juan Fernando Martín for their help.

- DSIC and ASIC for allowing us to use its facilities during the testing phase, especially to Vicente Blasco and Manuel Jiménez.

- The users who participated in the study.

- The reviewers for their valuable comments.

References

  1. 1.
    Howard, I.P., Rogers, B.J.: Binocular Vision and Stereopsis. Oxford University Press, New York (1995)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Howard, I.P., Rogers, B.J.: Perceiving in depth, vol. 3. Oxford University Press, New York (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Barry, S.R.: Fixing My Gaze: A Scientist’s Journey Into Seeing in Three Dimensions. Basic Books, New York (2009)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    LaViola, J.L.: A discussion of cybersickness in virtual environments. ACM SIGCHI Bull. 32(January), 47–56 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dionisio, J.D.N., Burns III, W.G., Gilbert, R.: 3D virtual worlds and the metaverse: current status and future possibilities. ACM Comput. Surv. 45(3), 34 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Muhanna, M.A.: Virtual reality and the CAVE: taxonomy, interaction challenges and research directions. J. King Saud Univ. Comput. Inf. Sci. 27, 344–361 (2015)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sutherland, I.E.: A head-mounted, three-dimensional display. In: The Fall Joint Computer Conference, pp. 757–764 (1968)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bridgeman, B.: Restoring adult stereopsis: a vision researcher’s personal experience. Optom. Vis. Sci. 91, e135–e139 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ding, J., Levi, D.M.: Recovery of stereopsis through perceptual learning in human adults with abnormal binocular vision. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 108(37), E733–E741 (2011). USACrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Astle, A.T., McGraw, P.V., Webb, B.S.: Recovery of stereo acuity in adults with amblyopia. BMJ Case Rep. 2011: bcr0720103143 (2011)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Xi, J., Jia, W.-L., Feng, L.-X., Lu, Z.-L., Huang, C.-B.: Perceptual learning improves stereoacuity in amblyopia. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55, 2384–2391 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Vedamurthy, I., Knill, D.C., Huang, S.J., Yung, A., Ding, J., Kwon, O.-S., Bavelier, D., Levi, D.M.: Recovering stereo vision by squashing virtual bugs in a virtual reality environment. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 371(1697), 20150264 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Young, M.K., Gaylor, G., B., Andrus, S.M., Bodenheimer, B.: A comparison of two cost-differentiated virtual reality systems for perception and action tasks. In: The ACM Symposium on Applied Perception, pp. 83–90 (2014)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Buń, P., Górski, F., Wichniarek, R., Kuczko, W., Hamrol, A., Zawadzki, P.: Application of professional and low-cost head mounted devices in immersive educational application. Procedia Comput. Sci. 75, 173–181 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Tan, C.T., Leong, T.W., Shen, S., Dubravs, C., Si, C.: Exploring gameplay experiences on the oculus rift. In: CHI PLAY 2015, pp. 253–263 (2015)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gutiérrez-Maldonado, J., Ferrer-García, M., Plasanjuanelo, J., Andrés-Pueyo, A., Talarn-Caparrós, A.: Virtual reality to train diagnostic skills in eating disorders. comparison of two low cost systems. Stud. Health Tech. Inf. 219, 75–81 (2015)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Juan, M.C., Pérez, D.: Comparison of the Levels of presence and anxiety in an acrophobic environment viewed via HMD or CAVE. Presence Teleoper. Virtual Environ. 18(3), 232–248 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Davis, S., Nesbitt, K., Nalivaiko, E.: Comparing the onset of cybersickness using the Oculus Rift and two virtual roller coasters. In: the 11th Australasian Conference on Interactive Entertainment, vol. 167, pp. 3–14 (2015)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Arias, N., Méndez, M., Arias, J.L.: Brain networks underlying navigation in the Cincinnati water maze with external and internal cues. Neurosci. Lett. 576, 68–72 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cárdenas-Delgado, S., Méndez-López, M., Juan, M.C., Pérez-Hernández, E., Lluch, J., Vivó, R.: Using a Virtual Maze Task to assess spatial short-term memory in adults. In: International Conference on Computer Graphics Theory and Applications, pp. 46–57 (2017)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Dodgson, N. A.: Variation and extrema of human interpupillary distance. In: SPIE 5291, Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems XI, pp. 36–46 (2004)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lang, J.: A new stereotest. J. Pediatr. Ophthalmol. Strabismus 20(2), 72–74 (1983)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Brown, S., Weih, L., Mukesh, N., McCarty, C., Taylor, H.: Assessment of adult stereopsis using the Lang 1 Stereotest: a pilot study. Binocular Vis. Strabismus Q. 16(2), 91–98 (2001)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Witmer, B.G., Singer, M.J.: Measuring presence in virtual environments: a presence questionnaire. Presence Teleoper. Virtual 7(3), 225–240 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Castanes, M.S.: Major review: The underutilization of vision screening (for amblyopia, optical anomalies and strabismus) among preschool age children. Binocular Vis. Strabismus Q. 18(4), 217–232 (2003)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zaroff, C.M., Knutelska, M., Frumkes, T.E.: Variation in stereoacuity: normative description, fixation disparity, and the roles of aging and gender. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, 891–900 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Patrick, E., Cosgrove, D., Slavkovic, A., Rode, J.A., Verratti, T., Chiselko, G.: Using a large projection screen as an alternative to head‐mounted displays for virtual environments. In: SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 478–485 (2000)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Carmack, J.: John Carmack’s Latency mitigation strategies (2013). http://www.pcgamesn.com/virtual–reality–john–carma. Accessed 20 Jan 2017
  29. 29.
    van den Boom, A.A.L.F.M., Stupar-Rutenfrans, S., Bastiaens, O., van Gisbergen, M.S.: Observe or participate: the effect of point-of-view on presence and enjoyment in 360 degree movies for head mounted displays. In: the European Conference on Ambient Intelligence (2015). http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-1528/paper13.pdf. Accessed 20 Jan 2017
  30. 30.
    Sharples, S., Cobb, S., Moody, A., Wilson, J.R.: Virtual reality induced symptoms and effects (VRISE): comparison of head mounted display (HMD), desktop and projection display systems. Displays 29(2), 58–69 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Munafo, J., Diedrick, M., Stoffregen, T.A.: The virtual reality head-mounted display Oculus Rift induces motion sickness and is sexist in its effects. Exp. Brain Res. 235, 889–901 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Instituto Universitario de Automática e Informática IndustrialUniversitat Politècnica de ValènciaValènciaSpain
  2. 2.Departamento de Psicología y SociologíaUniversidad de ZaragozaSaragossaSpain
  3. 3.Departamento de Psicología Evolutiva y de la EducaciónUniversidad Autónoma de MadridMadridSpain

Personalised recommendations