From three workshops, we collected 50 responses on the post-questionnaire. 38 among them stated values of the cards in design process, where 21 participants gave additional suggestions to inform our further iteration. In what follows, we present our findings in three folds. To start, we report the quantitative results from the scale to show how our participants assessed the usefulness of Perswedo in the design process. We then cluster the qualitative data based on the logical closeness of different results, where we firstly describe extra values of Perswedo we found from the questionnaire. We end up by presenting the design implications for current cards, which we have to take into account for the further appropriation of Perswedo cards into design practice.
4.1 Usefulness of Perswedo
Our questionnaire data (Fig. 2) indicate that on average the participants rated the usefulness better than neutral. Which implies Perswedo cards were supportive in different design activities for both individual and group. Moreover, it suggests that different elements of the cards positively supported the usage of Perswedo in the design flow. Given the small and uneven group size, it is unwarranted to compare the difference between three groups. However, from the chart we observed that the advanced group in general gave the most optimistic feedback on the questionnaire, despite they found the descriptions of the persuasive principles were least useful among others. One interpretation of this is perhaps this group of designers were familiar with how cards work in the design process so that they made use of the cards easier in the relatively short time in the workshop. Yet the textual content was less informative for them, as they might already know PT theory beforehand. Furthermore, the intermediate group scored the usefulness of Perswedo the lowest among most of the items, which suggest no liner correlation between the design knowledge and the perceived usefulness of the cards.
4.2 Value of Perswedo
(V1) Scope the Design Directions.
The results suggest that Perswedo was helpful to orient the design progress, as one participant mentioned: [Perswedo] gives us a basic foundation to start, as it’s easy to start from the words. This could be dated back to PSD, in which every principle has been summarized into a keyword . In this way, it helps people to grasp the core meanings of different design guidelines in a nutshell. Moreover, most of the participants appreciated the way how PSD classified design principles. They thought two perspectives, both dialogue support and social support, were very easy to understand and useful in guiding design. Participants also stated that color-code clearly differentiated two categories with each other. Also, our explanation in the beginning helped them a more comprehensive understanding of the classification.
(V2) Expand Ways for Concept Development.
In addition, 13 participants mentioned that cards were well designed and were clearly easy to use and consequently helped them to generate new ideas out of the box, as Perswedo inspired some [persuasive] directions of the design, which sometimes can be forgotten. Some participants even thought the cards provoked a sort of challenge, which stimulated them to think about a more varied approach of persuasion. Some others believed that Perswedo led them to talk about project [more] openness. Moreover, by acting with multiple cards, it gave external support to expand design rationale, as one student mentioned: when combining some cards together with each other, it helps to develop more possibilities. On the flip side, four participants also left comment that the cards helped the team more focus on the exact topic. They realized that when choosing a card, you had a specific purpose for the concept. Furthermore, information on the cards also helped students to weigh up their existing ideas, as one participant said: Explanation [on the cards] was a great help to confirm ideas on behavior change.
(V3) Extra Values of the Cards: Improve Design Activities.
Besides the dual-role of Perswedo we found as a domain knowledge carrier  to scope and expand the design thinking, we observed Perswedo, as a card-based tool for co-design practice, leveraged teamwork in three ways: Firstly, as a physical material for collaboration, Perswedo could be good incentives to start group discussion; Secondly, many participants considered the cards had assisted them to structure team discussion in a more well-organized way; Thirdly, since our tool helped students to be more focus on think, draw, and share during the project, they believed it also provided them an occasion to identify individual’s expertise, and in return to learn from each other.
Moreover, we found that nature of design card-set allowed participants to elaborate their ideas in different sessions by multiple manipulations. For instance: By placing the cards on sketching paper, participants figured out their concept more concretely; By pointing at different cards during discussion, participants communicated their idea more precisely; By linking their work with different principles in the pitch, participants presented their design more clearly; by holding the cards in their hand, participants felt more confident to tell us the story of the concept based on the design guidelines.
4.3 Design Implications for Perswedo
Despite the advantages of using Perswedo, we also learned our participants sometimes encountered difficulties to understand and use the cards as well as the PSD theory properly in the design process. Similar as what have been revealed previously , our approach of simplifying and abstracting the theoretical framework could bring danger to hinder or mislead design activities. Therefore, in the following we elaborate on what need to be done further to bring persuasive principles more appropriate to the actual design activities.
(I1) Design Example: Topic Relevance.
During workshops, three participants mentioned that the examples we offered on the cards, mostly about to motivate physical activity, were not always relevant to their design topics. Therefore, they suggested us to redesign examples to enable broader use of Perswedo. For instance, some students expected to get the real cases from designers or experts as references. Some students came to think of depicting more information on the backside, such as offering two examples for two directions on the back. From what participants suggested, showing multiple examples from various directions instead of single case on the cards would make the cards more inclusive to use in different design activities. In addition, prior studies  inform us that enabling the customization of Perswedo could also improve a wider usage in design process. To make the cards customizable, for instance, we can offer a DIY service platform with a database so that the content of the cards can be adapted for different use. Another example will be leaving the editable space on the cards, where designers can add their own interest.
(I2) Persuasive Principles: Generative and Informative.
In terms of the principle descriptions, some participants complained: The descriptions are not easy to understand when I first read them. Hence, their discussion sometimes focuses on the cards instead of on the idea for design project. From the feedback, we also learned that some design principles in PSD were very similar for our participants and somehow might confuse them during the usage. If we look back to PSD model itself, even though some principles look similar to each other from the descriptions, the principles are actually distinct to each other from the psychological perspective. For example, the meaning of reminder and suggestion are quite close. However, reminder is suggested to use for people who have a goal in their mind, while suggestion is more likely to introduce certain behavior to people who have no goal so far. Therefore, it is necessary to introduce more comprehensive story of the theory to our audience. To do so, supplementary tools, such as booklets, articles, and websites, that explain the story in detail should be added into the ecology surrounds our cards. Moreover, the foldable cards with space for more information could be another interesting direction to explore. Additionally, we also have interest to explore layman terms for persuasive principles so that more people with different background can use it without much confusion. Provocative content on the cards, such as transforming the guidelines into colloquial questions [11, 21], is also effective to facilitate the creative process.
(I3) Language Variations.
Since our participants were not all from English speaking countries, their fluencies in English were quite different. Therefore, the participants, who were not used of English as working language, had hard time to understand the meaning of Perswedo, as they stated: For the tester whose mother tone isn’t English, it’s needed some times to understand the text on the card. Some of them also noted that they could only refer to the graphics while using the cards. We have to admit that we overlooked the language issue when developing Perswedo. However, our participants considered that there should be a way for Perswedo to cross the culture and language. Despite the ordinary way to translate PSD principles into different versions, some students suggested more icons or info-graphics [on the cards] will [help designers] to understand [the concept] more clearly and instantly. Which means there is a chance to use visual elements to optimize the interaction between users and Perswedo.