Skip to main content

Detecting Early Choroidal Changes Using Piecewise Rigid Image Registration and Eye-Shape Adherent Regularization

Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNIP,volume 10554)


Recognizing significant temporal changes in the thickness of the choroid and retina at an early stage is a crucial factor in the prevention and treatment of ocular diseases such as myopia or glaucoma. Such changes are expected to be among the first indicators of pathological manifestations and are commonly dealt using segmentation-based approaches. However, segmenting the choroid is challenging due to low contrast, loss of signal and presence of artifacts in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. In this paper, we present a novel method for early detection of choroidal changes based on piecewise rigid image registration. In order to adhere to the eye’s natural shape, the regularization enforces the local homogeneity of the transformations in nasal-temporal (x-) and superior-inferior (y-) direction by penalizing their radial differences. We restrict our transformation model to anterior-posterior (z-) direction, as we focus on juvenile myopia, which correlates to thickness changes in the choroid rather than to structural alterations. First, the precision of the method was tested on an OCT scan-rescan data set of 62 healthy Asian children, ages 7 to 13, from a population with a high prevalence of myopia. Furthermore, the accuracy of the method in recognizing synthetically induced changes in the data set was evaluated. Finally, the results were compared to those of manually annotated scans.


  • Early choroidal changes
  • Piecewise rigid registration

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
USD   39.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD   54.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Learn about institutional subscriptions


  1. Čech, P., Andronache, A., Wang, L., Székely, G., Cattin, P.: Piecewise rigid multimodal spine registration. In: Handels, H., Ehrhardt, J., Horsch, A., Meinzer, H.P., Tolxdorff, T. (eds.) Bildverarbeitung für die Medizin 2006 Informatik aktuell. Springer, Heidelberg (2006). doi:10.1007/3-540-32137-3_43

    Google Scholar 

  2. Chhablani, J., Wong, I.Y., Kozak, I.: Choroidal imaging: a review. Saudi J. Ophthalmol. 28(2), 123–128 (2014)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  3. Chiu, S.J., Li, X.T., Nicholas, P., Toth, C.A., Izatt, J.A., Farsiu, S.: Automatic segmentation of seven retinal layers in SDOCT images congruent with expert manual segmentation. Opt. Express 18(18), 19413–19428 (2010)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  4. Jud, C., Möri, N., Bitterli, B., Cattin, P.C.: Bilateral regularization in reproducing kernel hilbert spaces for discontinuity preserving image registration. In: Wang, L., Adeli, E., Wang, Q., Shi, Y., Suk, H.-I. (eds.) MLMI 2016. LNCS, vol. 10019, pp. 10–17. Springer, Cham (2016). doi:10.1007/978-3-319-47157-0_2

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  5. Kajić, V., Esmaeelpour, M., Považay, B., Marshall, D., Rosin, P.L., Drexler, W.: Automated choroidal segmentation of 1060 nm OCT in healthy and pathologic eyes using a statistical model. Biomed. Opt. Express 3(1), 86–103 (2012)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  6. Mutti, D.O., Gwiazda, J., Norton, T.T., Smith, E.L., Schaeffel, F., To, C.H.: Myopia yesterday, today, and tomorrow. Optom. Vis. Sci. 90(11), 1161–1164 (2013). Official publication of the American Academy of Optometry

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  7. Nickla, D.L., Wallman, J.: The multifunctional choroid. Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 29(2), 144–168 (2010)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  8. Ronchetti, T., Maloca, P., Meier, C., Orgül, S., Jud, C., Hasler, P., Považay, B., Cattin, P.C.: Intensity-based choroidal registration using regularized block matching. In: Proceedings of the Ophthalmic Medical Image Analysis Third International Workshop (OMIA), pp. 33–40 (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  9. Tian, J., Marziliano, P., Baskaran, M., Tun, T.A., Aung, T.: Automatic segmentation of the choroid in enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography images. Biomed. Opt. Express 4(3), 397–411 (2013)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Tiziano Ronchetti .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2017 Springer International Publishing AG

About this paper

Cite this paper

Ronchetti, T. et al. (2017). Detecting Early Choroidal Changes Using Piecewise Rigid Image Registration and Eye-Shape Adherent Regularization. In: Cardoso, M., et al. Fetal, Infant and Ophthalmic Medical Image Analysis. OMIA FIFI 2017 2017. Lecture Notes in Computer Science(), vol 10554. Springer, Cham.

Download citation

  • DOI:

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-319-67560-2

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-319-67561-9

  • eBook Packages: Computer ScienceComputer Science (R0)