Stream Runtime Monitoring on UAS

  • Florian-Michael Adolf
  • Peter Faymonville
  • Bernd Finkbeiner
  • Sebastian Schirmer
  • Christoph Torens
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10548)

Abstract

Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) with autonomous decision-making capabilities are of increasing interest for a wide area of applications such as logistics and disaster recovery. In order to ensure the correct behavior of the system and to recognize hazardous situations or system faults, we applied stream runtime monitoring techniques within the DLR ARTIS (Autonomous Research Testbed for Intelligent System) family of unmanned aircraft. We present our experience from specification elicitation, instrumentation, offline log-file analysis, and online monitoring on the flight computer on a test rig. The debugging and health management support through stream runtime monitoring techniques have proven highly beneficial for system design and development. At the same time, the project has identified usability improvements to the specification language, and has influenced the design of the language.

References

  1. 1.
    Adolf, F., Thielecke, F.: A sequence control system for onboard mission management of an unmanned helicopter. In: AIAA Infotech@Aerospace Conference (2007)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    D’Angelo, B., Sankaranarayanan, S., Sánchez, C., Robinson, W., Finkbeiner, B., Sipma, H.B., Mehrotra, S., Manna, Z.: Lola: runtime monitoring of synchronous systems. In: 12th International Symposium on Temporal Representation and Reasoning (TIME 2005), pp. 166–174. IEEE Computer Society Press, June 2005Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Davis, J.A., Clark, M., Cofer, D., Fifarek, A., Hinchman, J., Hoffman, J., Hulbert, B., Miller, S.P., Wagner, L.: Study on the barriers to the industrial adoption of formal methods. In: Pecheur, C., Dierkes, M. (eds.) FMICS 2013. LNCS, vol. 8187, pp. 63–77. Springer, Heidelberg (2013). doi:10.1007/978-3-642-41010-9_5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dill, E.T., Young, S.D., Hayhurst, K.J.: SAFEGUARD: an assured safety net technology for UAS. In: 2016 IEEE/AIAA 35th Digital Avionics Systems Conference (DASC). IEEE, September 2016. https://doi.org/10.1109/dasc.2016.7778009
  5. 5.
    European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA): Advance Notice of Proposed Amendment 2015-10, Introduction of a regulatory framework for the operation of drones (2015)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA): Concept of Operations for Drones, A risk based approach to regulation of unmanned aircraft (2015)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Faymonville, P., Finkbeiner, B., Schirmer, S., Torfah, H.: A stream-based specification language for network monitoring. In: Falcone, Y., Sánchez, C. (eds.) RV 2016. LNCS, vol. 10012, pp. 152–168. Springer, Cham (2016). doi:10.1007/978-3-319-46982-9_10 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Geist, J., Rozier, K.Y., Schumann, J.: Runtime observer pairs and Bayesian network reasoners on-board FPGAs: flight-certifiable system health management for embedded systems. In: Bonakdarpour, B., Smolka, S.A. (eds.) RV 2014. LNCS, vol. 8734, pp. 215–230. Springer, Cham (2014). doi:10.1007/978-3-319-11164-3_18 Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gross, K.H., Clark, M.A., Hoffman, J.A., Swenson, E.D., Fifarek, A.W.: Run-time assurance and formal methods analysis nonlinear system applied to nonlinear system control. J. Aerosp. Inf. Syst. 14(4), 232–246 (2017). https://doi.org/10.2514/1.i010471 Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hallé, S., Gaboury, S., Khoury, R.: A glue language for event stream processing. In: BigData, pp. 2384–2391. IEEE (2016)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Joint Authorities for Rulemaking of Unmanned Systems (JARUS): JARUS Guidelines on Specific Operations Risk Assessment (SORA) (2016)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pike, L., Niller, S., Wegmann, N.: Runtime verification for ultra-critical systems. In: Khurshid, S., Sen, K. (eds.) RV 2011. LNCS, vol. 7186, pp. 310–324. Springer, Heidelberg (2012). doi:10.1007/978-3-642-29860-8_23 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA): DO-178C/ED-12C Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification (2011)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA): DO-333/ED-216 Formal Methods Supplement to DO-178C and DO-278A (2011)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Reinbacher, T., Rozier, K.Y., Schumann, J.: Temporal-logic based runtime observer pairs for system health management of real-time systems. In: Ábrahám, E., Havelund, K. (eds.) TACAS 2014. LNCS, vol. 8413, pp. 357–372. Springer, Heidelberg (2014). doi:10.1007/978-3-642-54862-8_24 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Schirmer, S.: Runtime Monitoring with Lola. Master’s Thesis, Saarland University (2016)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Schumann, J., Moosbrugger, P., Rozier, K.Y.: R2U2: monitoring and diagnosis of security threats for unmanned aerial systems. In: Bartocci, E., Majumdar, R. (eds.) RV 2015. LNCS, vol. 9333, pp. 233–249. Springer, Cham (2015). doi:10.1007/978-3-319-23820-3_15 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Torens, C., Adolf, F.: Software verification considerations for the ARTIS unmanned rotorcraft. In: 51st AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting Including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, January 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.2514/6.2013-593
  19. 19.
    Torens, C., Adolf, F.: Using formal requirements and model-checking for verification and validation of an unmanned rotorcraft. In: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, AIAA Infotech @ Aerospace, AIAA SciTech, 05–09 January 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.2514/6.2015-1645
  20. 20.
    Torens, C., Adolf, F.M., Goormann, L.: Certification and software verification considerations for autonomous unmanned aircraft. J. Aerosp. Inf. Syst. 11(10), 649–664 (2014)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Torens, C., Adolf, F.M.: Automated verification and validation of an onboard mission planning and execution system for uavs. In: AIAA Infotech@Aerospace (I@A) Conference, Boston, MA, 19–22 August 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.2514/6.2013-4564

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Florian-Michael Adolf
    • 2
  • Peter Faymonville
    • 1
  • Bernd Finkbeiner
    • 1
  • Sebastian Schirmer
    • 2
  • Christoph Torens
    • 2
  1. 1.Reactive Systems GroupSaarland UniversitySaarbrückenGermany
  2. 2.Institute of Flight SystemsDLR (German Aerospace Center)BraunschweigGermany

Personalised recommendations