Monitoring Partially Synchronous Distributed Systems Using SMT Solvers

  • Vidhya Tekken Valapil
  • Sorrachai Yingchareonthawornchai
  • Sandeep Kulkarni
  • Eric Torng
  • Murat Demirbas
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10548)

Abstract

In this paper, we discuss the feasibility of monitoring partially synchronous distributed systems to detect latent bugs, i.e., errors caused by concurrency and race conditions among concurrent processes. We present a monitoring framework where we model both system constraints and latent bugs as Satisfiability Modulo Theories (SMT) formulas, and we detect the presence of latent bugs using an SMT solver. We demonstrate the feasibility of our framework using both synthetic applications where latent bugs occur at any time with random probability and an application involving exclusive access to a shared resource with a subtle timing bug. We illustrate how the time required for verification is affected by parameters such as communication frequency, latency, and clock skew. Our results show that our framework can be used for real-life applications, and because our framework uses SMT solvers, the range of appropriate applications will increase as these solvers become more efficient over time.

References

  1. 1.
    Basin, D., Bhatt, B.N., Traytel, D.: Almost event-rate independent monitoring of metric temporal logic. In: Legay, A., Margaria, T. (eds.) TACAS 2017. LNCS, vol. 10206, pp. 94–112. Springer, Heidelberg (2017). doi:10.1007/978-3-662-54580-5_6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bauer, A., Falcone, Y.: Decentralised LTL monitoring. Form. Methods Syst. Des. 48(1–2), 46–93 (2016)CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bronson, N., Amsden, Z., Cabrera, G., Chakka, P., Dimov, P., Ding, H., Ferris, J., Giardullo, A., Kulkarni, S., Li, H., Marchukov, M., Petrov, D., Puzar, L., Song, Y.J., Venkataramani, V.: Tao: Facebook’s distributed data store for the social graph. In: Presented as part of the 2013 USENIX Annual Technical Conference (USENIX ATC 13), San Jose, CA, pp. 49–60. USENIX (2013)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Charron-Bost, B.: Concerning the size of logical clocks in distributed systems. Inf. Process. Lett. 39(1), 11–16 (1991)MathSciNetCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chase, C.M., Garg, V.K.: Detection of global predicates: techniques and their limitations. Distrib. Comput. 11(4), 191–201 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chauhan, H., Garg, V.K., Natarajan, A., Mittal, N.: A distributed abstraction algorithm for online predicate detection. In: Proceedings of the 2013 IEEE 32nd International Symposium on Reliable Distributed Systems, SRDS 2013, pp. 101–110. IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC (2013)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Corbett, J.C., Dean, J., Epstein, M., Fikes, A., Frost, C., Furman, J.J., Ghemawat, S., Gubarev, A., Heiser, C., Hochschild, P., Hsieh, W., Kanthak, S., Kogan, E., Li, H., Lloyd, A., Melnik, S., Mwaura, D., Nagle, D., Quinlan, S., Rao, R., Rolig, L., Saito, Y., Szymaniak, M., Taylor, C., Wang, R., Woodford, D.: Spanner: Google’s globally-distributed database. In: 10th USENIX Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation (OSDI 12), Hollywood, CA, pp. 261–264. USENIX Association (2012)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cristian, F., Fetzer, C.: The timed asynchronous distributed system model. In: Digest of Papers: FTCS-28, The Twenty-Eighth Annual International Symposium on Fault-Tolerant Computing, Munich, Germany, 23–25 June 1998, pp. 140–149 (1998)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    de Moura, L., Bjørner, N.: Z3: an efficient SMT solver. In: Ramakrishnan, C.R., Rehof, J. (eds.) TACAS 2008. LNCS, vol. 4963, pp. 337–340. Springer, Heidelberg (2008). doi:10.1007/978-3-540-78800-3_24 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Demirbas, M., Kulkarni, S.: Beyond truetime: using augmentedtime for improving google spanner. In: LADIS 2013: 7th Workshop on Large-Scale Distributed Systems and Middleware (2013)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Falcone, Y., Cornebize, T., Fernandez, J.-C.: Efficient and generalized decentralized monitoring of regular languages. In: Ábrahám, E., Palamidessi, C. (eds.) FORTE 2014. LNCS, vol. 8461, pp. 66–83. Springer, Heidelberg (2014). doi:10.1007/978-3-662-43613-4_5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fidge, C.J.: Timestamps in message-passing systems that preserve the partial ordering. In: Proceedings of the 11th Australian Computer Science Conference, vol. 10(1), pp. 56–66 (1988)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Garg, V.K., Waldecker, B.: Detection of weak unstable predicates in distributed programs. IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 5(3), 299–307 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kulkarni, S.S., Demirbas, M., Madappa, D., Avva, B., Leone, M.: Logical physical clocks. In: Aguilera, M.K., Querzoni, L., Shapiro, M. (eds.) OPODIS 2014. LNCS, vol. 8878, pp. 17–32. Springer, Cham (2014). doi:10.1007/978-3-319-14472-6_2 Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Marzullo, K., Neiger, G.: Detection of global state predicates. In: Toueg, S., Spirakis, P.G., Kirousis, L. (eds.) WDAG 1991. LNCS, vol. 579, pp. 254–272. Springer, Heidelberg (1992). doi:10.1007/BFb0022452 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mattern, F.: Virtual time and global states of distributed systems. In: Parallel and Distributed Algorithms, pp. 215–226. North-Holland (1989)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mills, D.L.: Internet time synchronization: the network time protocol. IEEE Trans. Commun. 39(10), 1482–1493 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mostafa, M., Bonakdarpour, B.: Decentralized runtime verification of LTL specifications in distributed systems. In: Proceedings of the 2015 IEEE International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium, IPDPS 2015, pp. 494–503. IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC (2015)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Schwarz, R., Mattern, F.: Detecting causal relationships in distributed computations: in search of the holy grail. Distrib. Comput. 7(3), 149–174 (1994)CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sen, K., Vardhan, A., Agha, G., Rosu, G.: Efficient decentralized monitoring of safety in distributed systems. In: Proceedings of the 26th International Conference on Software Engineering, ICSE 2004, pp. 418–427. IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC (2004)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Stoller, S.D.: Detecting global predicates in distributed systems with clocks. Distrib. Comput. 13(2), 85–98 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Valapil, V.T., Yingchareonthawornchai, S., Kulkarni, S., Torng, E., Demirbas, M.: Monitoring partially synchronous distributed systems using SMT solvers-technical report (2017). http://cse.msu.edu/~tekkenva/z3monitoringresults/TechnicalReport.pdf
  23. 23.
    Yingchareonthawornchai, S., Nguyen, D.N., Valapil, V.T., Kulkarni, S.S., Demirbas, M.: Precision, recall, and sensitivity of monitoring partially synchronous distributed systems. In: Falcone, Y., Sánchez, C. (eds.) RV 2016. LNCS, vol. 10012, pp. 420–435. Springer, Cham (2016). doi:10.1007/978-3-319-46982-9_26. arXiv:1607.03369 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Yingchareonthawornchai, S., Kulkarni, S.S., Demirbas, M.: Analysis of bounds on hybrid vector clocks. In: OPODIS 2015, Rennes, France, 14–17 December 2015, pp. 34:1–34:17 (2015)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Yingchareonthawornchai, S., Valapil, V.T., Kulkarni, S., Torng, E., Demirbas, M.: Efficient algorithms for predicate detection using hybrid logical clocks. In: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Distributed Computing and Networking, ICDCN 2017, pp. 10:1–10:10. ACM, New York (2017)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zhu, W., Cao, J., Raynal, M.: Predicate detection in asynchronous distributed systems: a probabilistic approach. IEEE Trans. Comput. 65(1), 173–186 (2016)MathSciNetCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vidhya Tekken Valapil
    • 1
  • Sorrachai Yingchareonthawornchai
    • 1
  • Sandeep Kulkarni
    • 1
  • Eric Torng
    • 1
  • Murat Demirbas
    • 2
  1. 1.Michigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA
  2. 2.SUNY BuffaloUniversity of BuffaloBuffaloUSA

Personalised recommendations