Analyzing the Influence of Urban Growth on Thermal Environment Through Demographic, Environmental, and Physical Parameters in Bangladesh

  • Yogesh Kant
  • Saiful Azim
  • Debashis Mitra
Part of the Springer Remote Sensing/Photogrammetry book series (SPRINGERREMO)


Urban growth is the most evident aspect of anthropogenic impact on the earth system, replacing the natural physical characteristics of earth’s surface and thus influencing the thermal environment. The resulting thermal environment impact is especially observed in developing countries like Bangladesh. In this study, we assess, evaluate, and explore the growth of urban areas over Bangladesh for summer and winter seasons of 2003–2013 using Landsat-7 ETM+. We integrate the expected urban growth scenarios with the thermal environment through demographic, environmental, and physical datasets and also predict urban growth. We delineated urban areas over Bangladesh using Impervious Surface Area (ISA) with 90% accuracy and observed a 128% increase in urban areas during the 10 years. We used multivariate technique with satellite-derived land surface temperature, Surface Urban Heat Island Intensity (SUHII), Albedo and artificial heat flux in identifying the urban hotspots in various cities over Bangladesh. The results indicate an increase in urban areas in the first 5 years (2003–2008) by over 100% and in the next 5 years (2008–2013) by 200% mainly due to lack of urban planning policies. Our results indicate an enormous increase of 167% in Urban Heat Island Effect Ratio (UHIER) during the period. We also used advanced statistical analysis to assess the relationship between selected demographic (population), environmental (PM2.5, PM10, relative humidity, and air temperature) and physical parameters (Urbanization Index and Urban Density Cluster) and identified parameters which are most influencing to the thermal environment. Our results suggest the significant increase in UHIER by 2018 over major cities in Bangladesh. To reduce the influence of urban growth on thermal environment, we recommend mitigation measures useful for urban planners and decision makers to ensure safety and public health in Bangladesh.


Urban growth Thermal environment Land surface temperature Surface urban heat island intensity Albedo Artificial heat flux Urban hotspots Urban heat island effect ratio Urbanization index Urban density cluster 



Mr. Saiful Azim is thankful to Chairman ISRO/CSSTEAP and Director, IIRS for giving opportunity to carry out work in India and fellowship for the research. Mr. Saiful is also thankful to Dr. Akhter Husain Choudhury from Bangladesh for allowing and sponsoring to undergo his research. The authors are grateful to respective organizations for encouragement and support provided during the progress of the work.


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Copyright information

© This is a U.S. Government work and not under copyright protection in the US; foreign copyright protection may apply 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Indian Institute of Remote Sensing, Indian Space Research Organization, Department of Space, Government of IndiaDehradunIndia
  2. 2.Department of Plant & Environmental SciencesUniversity of CopenhagenTaastrup CampusDenmark

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