South/Southeast Asia Research Initiative (SARI): A Response to Regional Needs in Land Cover/Land Use Change Science and Education

Chapter
Part of the Springer Remote Sensing/Photogrammetry book series (SPRINGERREMO)

Abstract

The goal of this initiative is to develop an innovative regional research, education, and capacity building program involving state-of-the-art remote sensing, natural sciences, engineering, and social sciences to enrich LCLUC science in South/Southeast Asia. SARI has two important objectives. First, to advance LCLUC science in the region. Second, to strengthen existing and build new collaborations between US and South/Southeast Asia researchers in the areas of LCLUC research. The impetus for such an initiative came from the LCLUC science team meeting held in Coimbatore, India, January 19–23, 2013.

To address LCLUC science, SARI has been utilizing a systems approach to problem-solving that examines both biophysical and socioeconomic aspects of land systems, including the interactions between land use and climate and the interrelationships among policy, governance, and land use. A central component of SARI is to use of geospatial data from both remotely sensed and in situ sources and models. To strengthen the theoretical underpinnings of LCLUC science in the South/Southeast Asian region, SARI has been facilitating: (a) new partnerships with space agencies, universities, and non-government organizations; (b) novel and regionally appropriate methodologies and algorithms for LCLUC products; (c) data sharing mechanisms; (d) leadership training; (e) international workshops to identify regional priorities, discuss and share scientific findings; (f) capacity building programs; and (g) international student/researcher exchanges, including among LCLUC scientists in the region. SARI has been serving as a facilitator and catalyst for LCLUC research in South/Southeast Asia. The outputs have been beneficial to the US, South/Southeast Asia, and international researchers and serving as a model for interdisciplinary research linking LCLUC science with NASA assets.

Keywords

South/Southeast Asian countries Land cover changes Research Capacity building and training 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We acknowledge Dr. Garik Gutman and Prof. Chris Justice for providing initial ideas on SARI and development. We are grateful to all SARI Task Force Members, Prof. Ruth De Fries, Dr. Thenkabail Prasad, Dr. Ivan Csiszar, Prof. Karen Seto, and Prof. Daniel Brown for providing valuable comments and suggestions on the current document. We also thank several regional scientists for providing important ideas on the SARI development.

References

  1. Alauddin M, Quiggin J (2008) Agricultural intensification, irrigation and the environment in South/Southeast Asia: issues and policy options. Ecol Econ 65(1):111–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Asian Development Bank (2000) The growth and sustainability of Agriculture in Asia. http://www.adb.org/publications/growth-and-sustainability-agriculture-asia
  3. Asian Development Bank (2013). http://www.adb.org
  4. Avishek K, Yu X, Liu J (2012) Ecosystem management in Asia Pacific: bridging science–policy gap. Environ Dev 3:77–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Azhar GS (2013) The need for climate-compatible development: a reminder from the Uttarakhand floods. Lancet. Glob Health 1(3):e135–e135Google Scholar
  6. Badarinath KVS, Kharol SK, Latha KM, Chand TR, Prasad VK, Jyothsna AN, Samatha K (2007) Multiyear ground-based and satellite observations of aerosol properties over a tropical urban area in India. Atmos Sci Lett 8(1):7–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Badarinath KVS, Kharol SK, Krishna Prasad V, Kaskaoutis DG, Kambezidis HD (2008) Variation in aerosol properties over Hyderabad, India during intense cyclonic conditions. Int J Remote Sens 29(15):4575–4597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Badarinath KVS, Sharma AR, Kharol SK, Prasad VK (2009) Variations in CO, O3 and black carbon aerosol mass concentrations associated with planetary boundary layer (PBL) over tropical urban environment in India. J Atmos Chem 62(1):73–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bahadur J (2004) Himalayan snow and glaciers: associated environmental problems, progress, and prospects (No. 7). Concept Publishing CompanyGoogle Scholar
  10. Bahuguna VK, Upadhay A (2002) Forest fires in India: policy initiatives for community participation. Int For Rev 4(2):122–127Google Scholar
  11. Baldi G, Verón SR, Jobbágy EG (2013) The imprint of humans on landscape patterns and vegetation functioning in the dry subtropics. Glob Chang Biol 19(2):441–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bandara JS, Cai Y (2014) The impact of climate change on food crop productivity, food prices and food security in South/Southeast Asia. J Econ Anal Policy 44(4):451–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Barnard PL, Owen LA, Sharma MC, Finkel RC (2001) Natural and human-induced landsliding in the Garhwal Himalaya of northern India. Geomorphology 40(1):21–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Biazin B, Sterk G (2013) Drought vulnerability drives land-use and land cover changes in the Rift Valley dry lands of Ethiopia. Agric Ecosyst Environ 164:100–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Biswas S, Vadrevu KP, Lwin ZM, Lasko K, Justice CO (2015) Factors controlling vegetation fires in protected and non-protected areas of Myanmar. PLoS One 10(4):e0124346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bolch T, Pieczonka T, Benn DI (2011) Multi-decadal mass loss of glaciers in the Everest area (Nepal Himalaya) derived from stereo imagery. Cryosphere 5(2):349–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brovkin V, Boysen L, Arora VK, Boisier JP, Cadule P, Chini L et al (2013) Effect of anthropogenic land-use and land-cover changes on climate and land carbon storage in CMIP5 projections for the twenty-first century. J Clim 26(18):6859–6881CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Calvin K, Clarke L, Krey V, Blanford G, Jiang K, Kainuma M et al (2012) The role of Asia in mitigating climate change: results from the Asia modeling exercise. Energy Econ 34:S251–S260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chang D, Song Y (2010) Estimates of BB emissions in tropical Asia based on satellite-derived data. Atmos Chem Phys 10:2335–2351. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-2335-2010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chaturvedi V, Shukla PR (2014) Role of energy efficiency in climate change mitigation policy for India: assessment of co-benefits and opportunities within an integrated assessment modeling framework. Clim Chang 123(3-4):597–609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chauhan M, Gopal B (2014) Sundarban mangroves: impact of water management in the Ganga river basin. In: Our national river Ganga. Springer International Publishing, pp 143–167Google Scholar
  22. Chauhan S, Sharma M, Arora MK, Gupta NK (2010) Landslide susceptibility zonation through ratings derived from artificial neural network. Int J Appl Earth Obs Geoinf 12(5):340–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dadhwal VK, Velumurugan A (2010) Land transformation and its consequences in South/Southeast Asia. In: Mitra AP, Sharma C (eds) Global environmental changes in South/Southeast Asia: a regional perspective. Springer, Netherlands, pp 125–170. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-9913-7_4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dewan AM, Yamaguchi Y (2009) Land use and land cover change in Greater Dhaka, Bangladesh: using remote sensing to promote sustainable urbanization. Appl Geogr 29(3):390–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dorji LHAM (2011) Bhutan’s Glaciers meltdown: threats and the need for Joint Response Mechanism. Sikkim University, Sikkim, India. http://www.nsb.gov.bt/publication/files/pub9ib9100uu.pdf Google Scholar
  26. Gadgil M, Rao PRS (1995) Designing incentives to conserve India’s bio-diversity. In: Hanna S, Munasnghe M (eds) Property rights in a social and ecological context: case studies and applications. Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics and The World Bank, Washington, DC, pp 53–62Google Scholar
  27. Gallo F, Lavé J (2014) Evolution of a large landslide in the High Himalaya of central Nepal during the last half-century. Geomorphology 223:20–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ghosh S, van Westen CJ, Carranza EJM, Jetten VG, Cardinali M, Rossi M, Guzzetti F (2012) Generating event-based landslide maps in a data-scarce Himalayan environment for estimating temporal and magnitude probabilities. Eng Geol 128:49–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Goldewijk KK (2001) Estimating global land use change over the past 300 years: the HYDE database. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 15(2):417–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Grigg DB (2004) The world food problem. Progress Agric Geogr 239Google Scholar
  31. Gurjar BR, Butler TM, Lawrence MG, Lelieveld J (2008) Evaluation of emissions and air quality in megacities. Atmos Environ 42(7):1593–1606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hayasaka H, Noguchi I, Putra EI, Yulianti N, Vadrevu K (2014) Peat-fire-related air pollution in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Environ Pollut 195:257–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Houghton RA (1999) The annual net flux of carbon to the atmosphere from changes in land use 1850–1990*. Tellus B 51(2):298–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Iftekhar MS, Islam MR (2004) Managing mangroves in Bangladesh: a strategy analysis. J Coast Conserv 10(1):139–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Johnson LA, Dearden P (2009) Fire ecology and management of seasonal evergreen forests in Southeast Asia. In: Cochrane M (ed) Tropical fire ecology climate change, land use and ecosystem dynamics. Springer, jointly published with Praxis Publishing, Chichester, UK, pp 289–310Google Scholar
  36. Justice C, Gutman G, Vadrevu KP (2015) NASA land cover and land use change (LCLUC): an interdisciplinary research program. J Environ Manag 148:4–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kale V (2012) On the link between extreme floods and excess monsoon epochs in South/Southeast Asia. Clim Dyn 39(5):1107–1122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kant Y, Ghosh AB, Sharma MC, Gupta PK, Prasad VK, Badarinath KVS, Mitra AP (2000a) Studies on aerosol optical depth in biomass burning areas using satellite and ground-based observations. Infrared Phys Technol 41(1):21–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kant Y, Prasad VK, Badarinath KVS (2000b) Algorithm for detection of active fire zones using NOAA AVHRR data. Infrared Phys Technol 41(1):29–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kulkarni AV, Karyakarte Y (2014) Observed changes in Himalayan glaciers. Curr Sci 106(2):237–244Google Scholar
  41. Kundu D (2014) Urban development programmes in India: a critique of JnNURM. Soc Change 44(4):615–632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ladha JK, Kumar V, Alam MM, Sharma S, Gathala M, Chandna P, et al (2009) Integrating crop and resource management technologies for enhanced productivity, profitability, and sustainability of the rice-wheat system in South/Southeast Asia. Integrated crop and resource management in the rice-wheat system of South/Southeast Asia. IRRI, Los Baños, Philippines, pp 69–108Google Scholar
  43. Lambin EF, Turner BL, Geist HJ, Agbola SB, Angelsen A, Bruce JW et al (2001) The causes of land-use and land-cover change: moving beyond the myths. Glob Environ Chang 11(4):261–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Le TH, Nguyen TNT, Lasko K, Ilavajhala S, Vadrevu KP, Justice C (2014) Vegetation fires and air pollution in Vietnam. Environ Pollut 195:267–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lehner B, Döll P (2004) Development and validation of a global database of lakes, reservoirs and wetlands. J Hydrol 296:1 (2004): 1–1 (2004):22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. McFiggans G, Schauer JJ (2010) Atmospheric Brown Clouds in the Himalayas. Special Issue. http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/special_issue162.html
  47. Mirza MMQ (2011) Climate change, flooding in South/Southeast Asia and implications. Reg Environ Chang 11(1):95–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Mittermeier RA, Robles-Gil P, Hoffmann M, Pilgrim JD, Brooks TB, Mittermeier CG, Lamoreux JL, Fonseca GAB (2004) Hotspots Revisited: Earth?s Biologically Richest and Most Endangered Ecoregions. CEMEX, Mexico City, Mexico, 390ppGoogle Scholar
  49. Myers N, Mittermeier RA, Mittermeier CG, Da Fonseca GA, Kent J (2000) Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403(6772):853–858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Nair BBMNS (2014) Calamities due to depletion of natural resources (a case study of uttarakhand disaster). Glob J Multidiscip Stud 4(1)Google Scholar
  51. Page SE, Siegert F, Rieley JO, Boehm HDV, Jaya A, Limin S (2002) The amount of carbon released from peat and forest fires in Indonesia during 1997. Nature 420(6911):61–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Patra PK, Canadell JG, Houghton RA, Piao SL, Oh NH, Ciais P et al (2013) The carbon budget of South/Southeast Asia. Biogeosciences 10:513–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Prasad VK, Badarinth KVS (2004) Land use changes and trends in human appropriation of above ground net primary production (HANPP) in India (1961–98). Geogr J 170(1):51–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Prasad VK, Kant Y, Badarinath KVS (2001) CENTURY ecosystem model application for quantifying vegetation dynamics in shifting cultivation areas: a case study from Rampa Forests, Eastern Ghats (India). Ecol Res 16(3):497–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Prasad VK, Kant Y, Gupta PK, Elvidge C, Badarinath KVS (2002) Biomass burning and related trace gas emissions from tropical dry deciduous forests of India: a study using DMSP-OLS data and ground-based measurements. Int J Remote Sens 23(14):2837–2851CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Prasad VK, Lata M, Badarinath KVS (2003) Trace gas emissions from biomass burning from northeast region in India—estimates from satellite remote sensing data and GIS. Environmentalist 23(3):229–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Prasad VK, Badarinath KVS, Eaturu A (2008) Effects of precipitation, temperature and topographic parameters on evergreen vegetation greenery in the Western Ghats, India. Int J Climatol 28(13):1807–1819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Prokop P, Płoskonka D (2014) Natural and human impact on the land use and soil properties of the Sikkim Himalayas piedmont in India. J Environ Manag 138:15–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Raina VK (2009) Himalayan glaciers: a state-of-art review of glacial studies, glacial retreat and climate change. Himalayan glaciers: a state-of-art review of glacial studies, glacial retreat and climate changeGoogle Scholar
  60. Ramanathan V, Carmichael G (2008) Global and regional climate changes due to black carbon. Nat Geosci 1(4):221–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Ramanathan V, Crutzen PJ, Lelieveld J, Mitra AP, Althausen D, Anderson J, Andreae MO, Cantrell W, Cass GR, Chung CE, Clarke AD (2001) Indian ocean experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo‐Asian haze. J Geophys Res Atmos 106(D22):28371–28398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Ramankutty N, Foley JA, Olejniczak NJ (2002) People on the land: changes in global population and croplands during the 20th century. AMBIO J Hum Environ 31(3):251–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Richards JF, Flint EP (1990) Long-term transformations in the Sundarbans wetlands forests of Bengal. Agric Hum Values 7(2):17–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Richards JF, Flint EP (1994) Historic land use and carbon estimates for South and Southeast Asia 1880-1980 (No. 4174). In: Daniels RC (ed) . Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TNGoogle Scholar
  65. Rishi P, Mudaliar R (2014) Climate stress, behavioral adaptation and subjective well being in coastal cities of India. American. J Appl Psychol 2(1):13–21Google Scholar
  66. Sati SP, Gahalaut VK (2013) The fury of the floods in the north-west Himalayan region: the Kedarnath tragedy. Geomat Nat Haz Risk 4(3):193–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Sati SP, Sundriyal YP, Rana N, Dangwal S (2011) Recent landslides in Uttarakhand: nature’s fury or human folly. Curr Sci 100(11):1617–1620Google Scholar
  68. Seto KC (2011) Exploring the dynamics of migration to mega-delta cities in Asia and Africa: contemporary drivers and future scenarios. Glob Environ Chang 21:S94–S107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Shaw RAJIB, IEDM Team (2009) Climate disaster resilience: focus on coastal urban cities in Asia. Asian J Environ Disaster Manage 1:101–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Shekhar MS, Chand H, Kumar S, Srinivasan K, Ganju A (2010) Climate-change studies in the western Himalaya. Ann Glaciol 51(54):105–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Shukla PR, Sharma SK, Ravindranath NH, Garg A, Bhattacharya S (2003) Climate change and India. Vulnerability Assessment and Adaptation. Eds. Univeristy Press (India) Private LimitedGoogle Scholar
  72. Squires D (2014) Biodiversity Conservation in Asia. Asia Pac Policy Stud 1(1):144–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Syed FS, Iqbal W, Syed AAB, Rasul G (2014) Uncertainties in the regional climate models simulations of South-Asian summer monsoon and climate change. Clim Dyn 42(7-8):2079–2097CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Thomas V, Albert JRG, Perez RT (2013) Climate-related disasters in Asia and the Pacific. Asian Development Bank Economics Working Paper Series, (358)Google Scholar
  75. Turner AG, Annamalai H (2012) Climate change and the South/Southeast Asian summer monsoon. Nat Clim Chang 2(8):587–595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Ummenhofer C, D’Arrigo R, Anchukaitis K, Hernandez M, Buckley B, Cook E (2014) Asian Monsoon Variability from the Monsoon Asia Drought Atlas (MADA) and Links to Indo- Pacific Climate. In EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (Vol. 16, p. 13249)Google Scholar
  77. UNEP (2008) Atmospheric Brown Clouds. Regional Assessment Report with focus on Asia. http://www.unep.org/pdf/ABCSummaryFinal.pdf
  78. UNESCAP (2014) Statistical Yearbook for Asia and the Pacific. http://www.unescap.org/resources/statistical-yearbook-asia-and-pacific-2014
  79. Vadrevu KP (2008) Analysis of fire events and controlling factors in eastern India using spatial scan and multivariate statistics. Geogr Ann 90(4):315–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Vadrevu KP, Justice CO (2011) Vegetation fires in the Asian region: satellite observational needs and priorities. Global Environ Res 15(1):65–76Google Scholar
  81. Vadrevu K, Lasko K (2015) Fire regimes and potential bioenergy loss from agricultural lands in the Indo-Gangetic Plains. J Environ Manag 148:10–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Vadrevu KP, Eaturu A, Badarinath KV (2006) Spatial distribution of forest fires and controlling factors in Andhra Pradesh, India using spot satellite datasets. Environ Monit Assess 123(1):75–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Vadrevu KP, Badarinath KVS, Anuradha E (2008) Spatial patterns in vegetation fires in the Indian region. Environ Monit Assess 147(1-3):1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Vadrevu KP, Ellicott E, Badarinath KVS, Vermote E (2011) MODIS derived fire characteristics and aerosol optical depth variations during the agricultural residue burning season, North India. Environ Pollut 159(6):1560–1569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Vadrevu KP, Ellicott E, Giglio L, Badarinath KVS, Vermote E, Justice C, Lau WK (2012) Vegetation fires in the himalayan region–Aerosol load, black carbon emissions and smoke plume heights. Atmos Environ 47:241–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Vadrevu KP, Csiszar I, Ellicott E, Giglio L, Badarinath KVS, Vermote E, Justice C (2013a) Hotspot analysis of vegetation fires and intensity in the Indian region. IEEE J Sel Top Appl Earth Obs Remote Sens 6(1):224–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Vadrevu KP, Giglio L, Justice C (2013b) Satellite based analysis of fire–carbon monoxide relationships from forest and agricultural residue burning (2003–2011). Atmos Environ 64:179–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Vadrevu KP, Lasko K, Giglio L, Justice C (2014) Analysis of Southeast Asian pollution episode during June 2013 using satellite remote sensing datasets. Environ Pollut 195:245–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Vadrevu KP, Lasko K, Giglio L, Justice C (2015) Vegetation fires, absorbing aerosols and smoke plume characteristics in diverse biomass burning regions of Asia. Environ Res Lett 10(10):105003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Wagnon P, Vincent C, Arnaud Y, Berthier E, Vuillermoz E, Gruber S et al (2013) Seasonal and annual mass balances of Mera and Pokalde glaciers (Nepal Himalaya) since 2007. Cryosphere 7(6):1769–1786CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Wilson S, Davies TE, Hazarika N, Zimmermann A (2015) Understanding spatial and temporal patterns of human–elephant conflict in Assam, India. Oryx 49(01):140–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Yeung YM (2001) Coastal mega-cities in Asia: transformation, sustainability and management. Ocean Coast Manag 44(5):319–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Zhao S, Peng C, Jiang H, Tian D, Lei X, Zhou X (2006) Land use change in Asia and the ecological consequences. Ecol Res 21(6):890–896CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.NASA Marshall Space Flight CenterHuntsvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations