Arctic Port Development

Chapter
Part of the Springer Polar Sciences book series (SPPS)

Abstract

Melting Arctic sea ice, shore ice, and permafrost are changing costs and benefits to transport routes between Atlantic and Pacific oceans, and more generally, for maritime economic activity in the Arctic. We investigate the potential for development of Arctic ports from a logistics (demand) and an infrastructural (supply) point of view that directly incorporates local concerns. This approach broadens the scope of the discussion from existing analyses that focus primarily on the ways in which global forces, exerted through resource extraction or trans-polar shipping, impact the Arctic.

Keywords

Arctic ports Arctic marine infrastructure Arctic economic development Marine Arctic economy Arctic Shipping 

References

  1. Aarluk Consulting, Gartner Lee Limited, & Anderson, C. (2005). Strategic plan for the Iqaluit deepwater port project. Internet Source: http://www.tunngavik.com/documents/publications/2005-08-00%20Iqaluit%20Deepwater%20Port%20Strategic%20Plan.pdf. Last call: 07 Dec 2016.
  2. Aksenov, Y., Popova, E. E., Yool, A., Nurser, A. J. G., Williams, T. D., Bertino, L., & Bergh J. (2016). On the future navigability of Arctic sea routes: High-resolution projections of the Arctic Ocean and sea ice. Marine Policy, 75, 330–317.Google Scholar
  3. Arctic Council. (2009). Arctic marine shipping assessment 2009 report. Internet Source: http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/arctic-zone/detect/documents/AMSA_2009_Report_2nd_print.pdf. Last call: 14 Nov 2016.
  4. Arctic Resources and Transportation Information System (Arctis) Knowledge Hub. (2017). Marine transport and logistics. Internet Source: http://www.arctis-search.com/Marine+Transport+and+Logistics. Last call: 26 Mar 2017.
  5. Barton, K. (2016). Crews connect Inuvik to Tuktoyaktuk highway in the middle. Internet Source: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/north/inuvik-tuktoyaktuk-highway-1.3526669. Last call: 19 Nov 2016.
  6. Bendsen, S., Nordskilde, J., & Jensen, M. P. (2011). The transport commission of Greenland. Internet Source: http://abstracts.aetransport.org/paper/index/id/3692/confid/17. Last call: 11 Dec 2016. ISSN:2313-1853.
  7. Bremenports. (2013). Iceland intends to build a new port on the Arctic Ocean and wishes to cooperate with the planning experts at Bremenports. Internet Source: http://www.bremenports.de/1267_2&template=print. Last call: 13 Nov 2016.
  8. Buixadé Farré, A., Stephenson, S. R., Chen, L., Czub, M., Dai, Y., Demchev, D., Efimov, Y., Graczyk, P., Grythe, H., Keil, K., Kivekas, N., Kumar, N., Liu, N., Matelenok, I., Myksvoll, M., O’Leary, D., Olsen, J., Pavithran, S. A. P., Petersen, E., Raspotnik, A., Ryzhov, I., Solski, J., Suo, L., Troein, C., Valeeva, V., van Rijckevorsel, J., & Wighting, J. (2014). Commercial Arctic shipping through the Northeast Passage: Routes, resources, governance, technology, and infrastructure. Polar Geography, 37(4), 298–324. http://www.enr.gov.nt.ca/state-environment/73-trends-shipping-northwest-passage-and-beaufort-sea.
  9. Chamberlain, N. (2013). Increasing military activity in the Arctic. Internet Source: http://natowatch.org/sites/default/files/briefing_paper_no.32_-_increase_in_military_activity_in_the_arctic.pdf. NATO Watch Briefing Paper No. 32; Last call: 19 Jan 2017.
  10. Chambers, S. (2015). Iceland’s president calls for coordinated Arctic port development. Internet Source: http://splash247.com/icelands-president-calls-for-coordinated-arctic-port-development/. Last call: 12 Nov 2016.
  11. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) working group. (2016). Arctic invasive species. Internet Source: http://www.caff.is/invasive-species. Last call: 19 Jan 2017.
  12. Dasgupta, S. (2016). What are deep water ports? Internet Source: http://www.marineinsight.com/ports/what-are-deep-water-ports/. Last call: 19 Jan 2017.
  13. DeMarban, A. (2015). Work toward deep-water port in Alaska Arctic on hold, Army Corps says. Internet Source: https://www.adn.com/arctic/article/corps-deepwater-port-us-arctic-hold/2015/10/26/. Last call: 19 Jan 2017.
  14. Dlouhy, J. A. (2017). Trump weighing Eni’s Arctic drilling bid in post-Obama pivot. Internet Source: https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2017-03-16/trump-weighing-eni-bid-to-drill-in-arctic-waters-after-obama-ban. Last call: 23 Mar 2017.
  15. DNV GL. (2016). Barents 2020 reports. Internet Source: https://www.dnvgl.com/oilgas/arctic/barents-2020-reports.html. Last call: 16 Dec 2016.
  16. Ducharme, S. (2016). Iqaluit deep sea port on schedule, Nunavut official says – City councillors want more consultation on port, small craft harbour. Internet Source: http://www.nunatsiaqonline.ca/stories/article/65674iqaluit_deep_sea_port_on_schedule_nunavut_official_says/. Last call: 17 Jan 2017.
  17. Emmerson, C., & Lahn, G. (2012). Arctic opening: Opportunity and risk in the high north, Lloyd’s report. Internet Source: https://www.lloyds.com/~/media/files/news%20and%20insight/360%20risk%20insight/arctic_risk_report_webview.pdf. Last call: 26 Mar 2017.
  18. Fletcher, S., Robertson, T., Higman, B., Janes, M., Sughroue, A., DeCola, P., & Mom, C. (2016). Bering sea vessel traffic risk analysis. Internet source, Dec 2016 ocean conservancy report by Nuka Research and Planning Group. http://www.oceanconservancy.org/places/arctic/bering-sea-vessel-traffic.pdf. Last call: 25 Mar 2017.
  19. Frizzel, S. (2017). Public gets first look at plans for Iqaluit’s deep sea port. CBC News. http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/north/iqaluit-deepwater-port-design-plans-1.4008680. Last call: 25 Mar 2017.
  20. Gabriel, D. (2010). Nato Arctic security and Canadian sovereignty in the far north. Global research. Internet Source: http://www.globalresearch.ca/nato-arctic-security-and-canadian-sovereignty-in-the-far-north/22048. Last call: 20 Nov 2016.
  21. Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS). (2017). Oil and gas Greenland. Internet Source: http://www.geus.dk/UK/energy/oil-gas-gl/Pages/default.aspx. Last call: 25 Mar 2017.
  22. Government of Canada. (2015). International Arctic partners. Internet Source: http://www.international.gc.ca/arctic-arctique/partners-international-partenaires.aspx?lang=eng. Last call: 19 Jan 2017.
  23. Government of Greenland. (2014). Greenland’s oil and mineral strategy 2014–2018. Internet Source: http://naalakkersuisut.gl/~/media/Nanoq/Files/Publications/Raastof/ENG/Greenland%20oil%20and%20mineral%20strategy%202014-2018_ENG.pdf. Last call: 09 Dec 2016.
  24. Gramer, R. (2017). Trump’s military buildup threatens to gut U.S. coast guard. Foreign policy. Internet Source: http://foreignpolicy.com/2017/03/02/trump-military-build-up-threatens-to-cut-u-s-coast-guard-budget-cuts-department-of-homeland-security/. Last call: 23 Mar 2017.
  25. Gunnarsson, B. (2015). Future development for the northern sea route. Internet Source: http://www.maritime-executive.com/editorials/future-development-of-the-northern-sea-route. Last call: 19 Jan 2017.
  26. Guruswamy, L. D., & Aamodt, J. B. (1999). Nuclear arms control: The environmental dimension. Colorado Journal of International Environmental Law and Policy, 10, 267–318.Google Scholar
  27. Hansen, C. Ø., GrØnsedt, P., Graversen, C. L., & Hendriksen, C. (2016). Arctic shipping. Copenhagen: CBS.Google Scholar
  28. Higginbotham, J., & Grosu, M. (2014). The Northwest Territories and Arctic maritime development in the beaufort area. Centre for International Governance Innovation – Policy Briefs. https://www.cigionline.org/publications/northwest-territories-and-arctic-maritime-development-beaufort-area. Last call: 19 Jan 2017.
  29. Ho, J. (2010). The implications of Arctic sea ice decline on shipping. Marine Policy, 34(3), 713–715.Google Scholar
  30. Hunt, V. (2015). Fire and ice: The Nazi’s scorched earth campaign in Norway. Copenhagen: The History Press.Google Scholar
  31. International Association of Classification Societies. (2016). Requirements concerning polar class. Internet Source: http://www.iacs.org.uk/document/public/Publications/Unified_requirements/PDF/UR_I_pdf410.pdf. Last call: 23 Mar 2017.
  32. International Institute for Sustainable Development. (2013). Sustainable development in Greenland: Perspectives from a preliminary stakeholder consultation. Internet Source: https://www.iisd.org/pdf/2014/greenland_sustainable_development.pdf. Last call: 07 Dec 2016.
  33. Ircha, M. C., & Higginbotham, J. (2016). Canada’s Arctic shipping challenge, Chapter 15. In A. K. Y. Ng, A. Becker, S. Cahoon, S. -L. Chen, P. Earl, & Z. Yang (Eds.), Climate change and adaptation planning for ports (Routledge studies in transport analysis, pp. 232–245). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  34. Jenkins, A. (2017). Spanish oil repsol company makes biggest U.S. onshore find in 30 years. Internet Source: http://fortune.com/2017/03/10/oil-discovery-repsol/. Last call: 23 Mar 2017.
  35. Jepson, T. (2017). The world’s most dangerous cruise? 1,070-capacity ship takes on the Northwest Passage. The Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/travel/cruises/news/worlds-most-dangerous-cruise-arctic-northwest-passage/. Last call: 25 Mar 2017.
  36. Josephson, P. R. (2016). Russia, state capitalism and Arctic degradation. Global Environment, 9(2), 376–413.Google Scholar
  37. Kingdom of Norway. (2010). Treaty between the kingdom of Norway and the Russian Federation concerning maritime delimitation and cooperation in the Barents sea and the Arctic Ocean. Internet Source: https://www.regjeringen.no/globalassets/upload/SMK/Vedlegg/2010/avtale_engelsk.pdf. Last call: 16 Dec 2016.
  38. Kiruna (2013). Kiruna declaration. The eight ministerial meeting of the Arctic council, Kiruna, 15 May 2013. Internet Source: https://oaarchive.arctic-council.org/handle/11374/93. Last call: 16 Oct 2017.
  39. Kives, B. (2016). What the closure of an Arctic seaport in Manitoba could mean for Canadian sovereignty – closure of Canada’s only deepwater mainland Arctic port may pose a problem. Internet Source: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/manitoba/churchill-port-analysis-1.3696199. Last call: 19 Nov 2016.
  40. Kourantidou, M., Kaiser, B. A., & Fernandez, L. (2015). Towards Arctic resource governance of marine invasive species. Internet Source: http://www.arcticyearbook.com/images/Articles_2015/9.Towards-Arctic-Resource.pdf. Arctic yearbook 2015; Last call: 19 Jan 2017.
  41. Lasserre, F., & Pelletier, S. (2011). Polar super seaways? Maritime transport in the Arctic: An analysis of shipowners’ intentions. Journal of Transport Geography, 19(6), 1465–1473.Google Scholar
  42. Lecraw, J. D. (1984). Some economic effects of standards. Applied Economics, 16(4), 507–522.Google Scholar
  43. Lee, S. W. (2016). Necessary conditions for the commercialization of Arctic shipping. In Challenges of the changing Arctic: Continental shelf, navigation and fisheries. Copenhagen: Brill Nijhoff. http://www.brill.com/products/book/challenges-changing-arctic#TOC_1. Last call: 23 Mar 2017.
  44. Liu, M., & Kronbak, J. (2010). The potential economic viability of using the Northern Sea Route (NSR) as an alternative route between Asia and Europe. Journal of Transport Geography, 18, 434–444.Google Scholar
  45. Martirosyan, L. (2016). Waste from a secret US base was left to be entombed “forever” in Greenland’s ice. but forever has changed. Internet Source: http://www.pri.org/stories/2016-08-11/entombed-cold-war-era-us-military-base-may-be-exposed-climate-change. Last call: 19 Jan 2017.
  46. McCague, F. (2014). Arctic shipping route develop at top of the world. Cargo Business News, 92(4), 18–22.Google Scholar
  47. McCrae, M. A. (2013). Greenland iron ore mine gets green light. Internet Source: http://www.mining.com/greenland-iron-ore-mine-gets-gets-a-green-light-25569/. Last call: 07 Dec 2016.
  48. McDowell Group. (2016). Port of Nome – strategic development plan. Internet Source: http://www.mcdowellgroup.net/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/1555-Port-of-Nome-Strategic-Development-Plan-Final.pdf. Last call: 14 Nov 2016.
  49. Ministry of Foreign Affairs Denmark, Department of Foreign Affairs Greenland, & Ministry of Foreign Affairs Faroes. (2011). Kingdom of Denmark strategy for the Arctic 2011–2020. Internet Source: http://www.uniset.ca/microstates/mss-denmark_en.pdf. Last call: 10 Dec 2016. ISBN:561-5.
  50. National Energy Authority of Iceland (Orkusofnun). (2017). Oil and gas exploration. Internet Source: www.nea.is/oil-and-gas-exploration/. Last call: 25 Mar 2017.
  51. National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency. (2016). World port index (25th ed.). Internet Source: http://msi.nga.mil/MSISiteContent/StaticFiles/NAV_PUBS/WPI/Pub150bk.pdf. Last call: 19 Jan 2017.
  52. Nuuk (2011). Nuuk declaration. The seventh ministerial meeting of the Arctic council, Nuuk, 12 May 2011. Internet Source: https://oaarchive.arctic-council.org/handle/11374/92. Last call: 16 Oct 2017.
  53. Østhagen, A. (2015). Coastguards in peril: A study of Arctic defence collaboration. Defence Studies, 15(2):143–160.Google Scholar
  54. Østreng, W., Eger, K. M., Fløistad, B., Jørgensen-Dahl, A., Lothe, L., Mejlænder-Larsen, M., & Wergeland, T. (2013). Shipping in Arctic Waters: A comparison of the Northeast, Northwest and Trans Polar Passages. Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
  55. Pearce, T. D., Smit, B., Duerden, F., Katayoak, F., Inuktalik, R., Goose, A., & Wandel, J. (2008). Travel routes, harvesting and climate change in Ulukhaktok, Canada. In The borderless North. Northern Research Forum. Oulu: The Thule Institute, University of Oulu. https://www.rha.is/static/files/NRF/OpenAssemblies/Oulu2006/nrf_publication_4th_procedings.pdf.
  56. Ragner, C. L. (Ed.). (2000). The 21st century – Turning point for the Northern Sea Route? In Proceedings of the Northern Sea Route User Conference, Oslo, 18–20 Nov 1999. Springer.Google Scholar
  57. Russian Railways. (2017). Russian railways website. Internet Source: http://eng.rzd.ru/statice/public/en?STRUCTURE_ID=4314. Last call: 26 Mar 2017.
  58. Smith, L. C., & Stephenson, S. R. (2013). New trans-Arctic shipping routes navigable by midcentury. PNAS, 110(13), 1191–1195.Google Scholar
  59. Staalesen, A. (2012). In Russian Arctic, a new major sea port. Internet Source: http://barentsobserver.com/en/energy/russian-arctic-new-major-sea-port-06-08. Last call: 11 Dec 2016.
  60. Staalesen, A. (2016). Security interests spice up Barents fishery talks. Internet Source: http://thebarentsobserver.com/en/industry-and-energy/2016/10/security-interests-spice-barents-fishery-talks. Last call: 19 Jan 2017.
  61. Stephenson, S. R., Smith, L. C., & Agnew, J. A. (2011). Divergent long-term trajectories of human access to the Arctic. Nature Climate Change, 1, 156–160.Google Scholar
  62. Tomkiw, L. (2016). Russia military increases Arctic permanent presence amid regional tension. Internet Source: http://www.ibtimes.com/russia-military-increases-arctic-permanent-presence-amid-regional-tension-2285782. Last call: 19 Jan 2017.
  63. United States White House. (2017a). President Trump is working to rebuild our nation’s infrastructure. Internet Source: https://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2017/02/28/president-trump-working-rebuild-our-nations-infrastructure. Last call: 23 Mar 2017.
  64. United States White House. (2017b). Budget. Internet Source: ttps://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget. Last call: 23 Mar 2017.Google Scholar
  65. United States White House. (2017c). An America first energy plan. Internet Source: https://www.whitehouse.gov/america-first-energy. Last call: 23 Mar 2017.
  66. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. (2013). Alaska deep-draft Arctic port system study. Internet Source: http://www.poa.usace.army.mil/Library/Reports-and-Studies/Alaska-Regional-Ports-Study/. Last call: 14 Nov 2016.
  67. Van Dusen, J. (2016). Iqaluit’s deep sea port inches forward. Internet Source: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/north/iqaluit-deep-sea-port-1.3782182. Last call: 07 Dec 2016.
  68. Verny, J., & Grigentin, C. (2009). Container shipping on the northern sea route. International Journal of Production Economics, 122, 107–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Wald, E. R. (2016). Alaska’s 10 billion barrel oil discovery: What you need to know. Internet Source: https://www.forbes.com/sites/ellenrwald/2016/10/06/alaskas-10-billion-barrel-oil-discovery-what-you-need-to-know/#11efba2b47ef. Last call: 23 Mar 2017.

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.SDU Engineering Operations Management, Department of Technology and InnovationUniversity of Southern DenmarkOdenseDenmark
  2. 2.Department of Sociology, Environmental and Business EconomicsUniversity of Southern DenmarkEsbjergDenmark

Personalised recommendations