Unmanned Maritime Systems: Does the Increasing Use of Naval Weapon Systems Present a Challenge for IHL?
The legal status of unmanned maritime systems is unsettled. Whereas this does not pose insurmountable problems in times of peace, it could prove as an obstacle to the use of unmanned maritime systems for the exercise of belligerent rights in times of international armed conflict. Nevertheless, unmanned maritime systems will qualify as means of warfare, if they are used for attack purposes. While they are not unlawful per se, even if semi-autonomous or autonomous, their use will have to be in compliance with targeting law.
- Concise Oxford English Dictionary (2011) 12th edn. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
- Doswald-Beck L (ed) (1995) San Remo manual on international law applicable to armed conflicts at sea and explanation. Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
- National Defense Research Institute (RAND Corp.) (2009) A Survey of Missions for Unmanned Undersea Vehicles. Available at: http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/monographs/2009/RAND_MG808.pdf
- Program on Humanitarian Policy and Conflict Research, Manual on International Law Applicable to Air and Missile Warfare (2009) [AMW Manual]Google Scholar
- Sandoz Y, Swinarski C, Zimmermann B (eds) (1987) Commentary on the additional protocols of 8 June 1977 to the Geneva conventions of 12 August 1949. Martinus Nijhoff, LeidenGoogle Scholar
- U.S. Department of Defense, Unmanned Systems Integrated Roadmap FY 2013–2038Google Scholar
- U.S. Department of the Navy (2004) The Navy Unmanned Undersea Vehicle (UUV) Master PlanGoogle Scholar
- U.S. Navy/U.S. Marine Corps/U.S. Coast Guard, The Commander’s Hand-book on the Law of Naval Operations (NWP 1-14M) (Edition July 2007)Google Scholar