Practical Applications

  • Boris RadovskiyEmail author
  • Bagdat Teltayev
Part of the Structural Integrity book series (STIN, volume 2)


The subject of this chapter is the practical application of proposed equations for prediction the viscoelastic properties of bitumen. This Chapter reviews the evolution of penetration and the softening temperature of bitumen during preparation of the asphalt mix at the hot mixing facility and their variation in time during the service life of pavement that causes the variation of viscoelastic properties of asphalt pavement. The requirements of Superpave binder specification to the properties of asphalt are discussed. Those properties can be determined by laboratory testing with the equipment developed by Superpave researchers or they can be estimated for bitumen binders from the relationships described in the monograph. Once the viscoelastic properties of asphalt have been predicted using the methodology described in Chap.  3, there is a need to determine the engineering properties of asphalt concrete as a function of temperature and loading duration for use in evaluating performance and in the mechanistic-empirical thickness design methods. This chapter describes determination of the asphalt concrete relaxation modulus and complex modulus using the mixture rule (Hirsh model). The moduli predictions might be almost as accurate as independent measurements of moduli. For many pavement design and analysis procedures, predicted modulus values of asphalt concrete mixtures can be effectively used.


  1. Airy G, Brown SF (1997) Rheological performance of aged polymer modified bitumens. AAPT 67:66–100Google Scholar
  2. Anderson DA, Christensen DW, Bahia HU, Dongre R et al (1994) Binder characterization and evaluation, vol 3: Physical Characterization, SHRP report A-369. National Research Council, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  3. Asphalt Institute Inc. (2003) Performance graded asphalt binder specification and testing. Superpave Series No. 1 (SP-1). 3rd ed. Asphalt Institute Inc.Google Scholar
  4. Bell C (1989) Summary report on aging of asphalt-aggregate systems, SHRP Report A-305. National Research Council, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  5. Benson P (1976) Low temperature transverse cracking of asphalt concrete pavements in Central and West Texas. Texas Transportation Institute, Texas A&M UniversityGoogle Scholar
  6. Bouldin MG, Dongré R, Rowe GM, Sharrock MJ, Anderson DA (2000) Predicting thermal cracking of pavements from binder properties. AAPT 69:455–496Google Scholar
  7. Composite Materials. Broutman LJ, Krock RH (ed) (1974) Mechanics of composite materials, vol 2. Sendeckyj GP (ed). Academic Press, New York and LondonGoogle Scholar
  8. Brown S (1980) Introduction to analytical design of asphalt pavement, NottinghamGoogle Scholar
  9. Brunton J (1983) Developments in the analytical design of asphalt pavements using computers. University of NottinghamGoogle Scholar
  10. Christensen DW, Anderson DA (1992) Interpretation of dynamic mechanical test data for paving grade asphalt cements. J AAPT 61:67–116Google Scholar
  11. Christensen DW, Bonaquist R (2015) Improved Hirsch model for estimating the modulus of hot mix asphalt. J Assoc Asph Pav Tech 84:527–557Google Scholar
  12. Christensen DW, Bonaquist T, Pellinen RF (2003) Hirsch model for estimating the modulus of asphalt concrete. J Assoc Asph Pav Tech 72:97–121Google Scholar
  13. Christison JT, Murray DW, Anderson KO (1972) Stress prediction and low temperature fracture susceptibility of asphaltic concrete pavements. J Assoc Asph Pav Tech 41:494–523Google Scholar
  14. Corbett LW, Merz RE (1975) Asphalt binder hardening in the Michigan Test Road after 18 years of service. Transportation Research Record 544, Washington DC: 27–34Google Scholar
  15. Culley R (1969) Relationships between hardening of asphalt cement and transverse cracking pavements in Saskatchewan. AAPT 38:629–645Google Scholar
  16. Deme IJ, Young FD (1987) Ste. Anne Test Road revisited twenty years later. Proc Can Tech Asphalt Assoc 32:254–283Google Scholar
  17. Finn F (1990) Asphalt properties and relationship to pavement performance. Literature Review, SHRP Task 1.4, ARE IncGoogle Scholar
  18. Harnsberger M (2011) Doing with WRI: an overview of FHWA research. Rocky Mountain Asphalt Conference, Denver, Colorado, February 23, 2011Google Scholar
  19. Heukelom W (1966) Observations on the rheology and fracture of bitumens and asphalt mixes. J Assoc Asph Pav Tech 35:358–399Google Scholar
  20. Hill R (1963) Elastic properties of reinforced solids: some theoretical principles. J Mech Phys Solid 11:357–372CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  21. Hirsch TJ (1962) Modulus of elasticity of concrete affected by elastic moduli of cement paste matrix and aggregate. J Am Conc Inst 59(3):427–452Google Scholar
  22. Hubbard P, Gollomb H (1937) The hardening of asphalt with relation to development of cracks in asphalt pavements. Proc AAPT 9:165–194Google Scholar
  23. Humphreys J, Martin C (1963) Determination of transient thermal stresses in a slab with temperature dependent viscoelastic properties. Trans Soc Rheol 7:155–170CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  24. Kandhal PS (1977) Low temperature ductility of asphalt in relation to pavement performance. American society for testing and materials. Special Technical Publication 628Google Scholar
  25. Molenaar AA, Li N (2014) Prediction of compressive and tensile strength of asphalt concrete. Int J Pav Res Tech 7:324–331Google Scholar
  26. Monismith CL, Secor GA, Secor KE (1965) Temperature induced stresses and deformations in asphalt concrete. J Assoc Asph Pav Tech 34:248–285Google Scholar
  27. Mortazavi M, Moulthrop JS (1993) The SHRP materials reference library, SHRP-A-646, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  28. Pell PS, Cooper KE (1975) The effect of testing and mix variables on the fatigue performance of bituminous materials. J Assoc Asph Pav Tech 41:1–37Google Scholar
  29. Sall AO (1989) Toward the problem for increase of long life for asphalt concrete pavements. Works of SoyuzdorNII, 128–133Google Scholar
  30. Smith T (1976) Linear viscoelastic response to a deformation at constant rate: derivation of physical properties of a densely cross-linked elastomer. Trans Soc Rheol 1:103–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Stock AF, Arand W (1993) Low temperature cracking in polymer modified binder. J Assoc Asph Pav Tech 62:23–53Google Scholar
  32. Teltayev B, Kaganovich E (2011) Bitumen and asphalt concrete requirements improvement for the climatic conditions of the Republic of Kazakhstan. CD. Proceedings of the 24th World Road Congress, p 1–13Google Scholar
  33. Teltayev B, Kaganovich E (2012) Evaluating the low temperature resistance of the asphalt pavement under the climatic conditions of Kazakhstan. In: 7th RILEM international conference on cracking in pavements, pp 211–221Google Scholar
  34. Traxler RN (1961) Relation between asphalt composition and hardening by volatilization and oxidation. Proc AAPT 30:359–372Google Scholar
  35. Welborn JY (1979) Relationship of asphalt cement properties to pavement durability. TRB, NCHRP Report, p 59Google Scholar
  36. AASHTO M 320-05 (2005) Standard specification for performance-graded asphalt binderGoogle Scholar
  37. AASHTO R 29-15 (2015) Grading or verifying the Performance Grade (PG) of an asphalt binderGoogle Scholar
  38. ASTM D 6816—02 Standard practices for determining low-temperature Performance Grade (PG) of asphalt bindersGoogle Scholar
  39. Zofka A, Marasteanu M, Li X, Clyne T, McGraw J (2005) Simple method to obtain asphalt binders low temperature properties from asphalt mixtures properties. J Assoc Asph Pav Tech 74:255–282Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Radnat ConsultingIrvineUSA
  2. 2.Kazakhstan Highway Research InstituteAlmatyKazakhstan

Personalised recommendations