Fruit and Vegetable Processing Plant Sanitation

  • Norman G. Marriott
  • M. Wes Schilling
  • Robert B. Gravani
Part of the Food Science Text Series book series (FSTS)


An effective sanitation program for fruit and vegetable processing facilities requires a sanitary design of facilities and equipment, training of sanitation personnel, use of appropriate cleaning compounds and sanitizers, adoption of effective cleaning procedures, and effective administration of the sanitation program—including evaluation of the program through visual inspection and laboratory tests. Effective sanitation starts with reduced contamination of raw materials, water, air, and supplies. If the facility and equipment are hygienically designed, cleaning is easier and contamination is reduced.

Cleaning labor can be reduced through the use of portable or centralized high-pressure or foam cleaning systems, and cleaning-in-place (CIP) systems can be used in large operations. Many facilities, if designed of durable material, can be cleaned effectively with acid cleaning compounds and sanitized most adequately and economically by using paints and other protective coatings as additional sanitary precautions. The effectiveness of a sanitation program can be evaluated through the establishment of standards as guidelines, visual inspection, and laboratory tests.


Contamination Food Safety Modernization Act Cleaners Sanitizers Cleaning procedures Wash water Disinfestation 


  1. Anon (2003). Making the right choice-sanitizers. Ecolab Inc.: St. Paul, MNGoogle Scholar
  2. Bari M, Kusunoki H, Furukawa H, Ikeda, H, Isshiki K, Uemura T (1999). Inhibition of growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in fresh radish (Raphanus sativus L.) sprout production by calcinated calcium. J Food Prot 62: 128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beuchat LR, Nail NV, Adler BB, Clavero MRS (1998). Efficacy of spray application of chlorinated water in killing pathogenic bacteria on raw apples, tomatoes, and lettuce. J Food Prot 62: 845.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Clark JP (2004). Ozone-cure for some sanitation problems. Food Technol 58(4): 75.Google Scholar
  5. Cramer C (2012). Biofilms: Impact on the food industry. Food Saf Mag June/July: 1.Google Scholar
  6. Drusch S, Ragab W (2003). Mycotoxins in fruits, fruit juices, and dried fruits. J Food Prot 66: 1514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gonzalez RJ, Yaguang L, Ruiz-Cruz S, McEvoy JL (2004). Efficacy of sanitizers to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 on fresh-cut carrot shreds under simulated process water conditions. J Food Prot 67: 2375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Han Y, Sherman DM, Linton RH, Nielsen SS, Nelson PE (2000). The effects of washing and chlorine dioxide gas on survival and attachment of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to green pepper surfaces. Food Microbiol 17: 521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Holvoet K, Jacxsens L, Sampers I, Uyttendaele M (2012). Insight to the prevalence and distribution of microbial contamination to evaluate water management in the fresh produce processing industry. J Food Prot 75: 671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hsu WY, Simonne A, Jitareerat P. (2006). Fates of seeded Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on selected fresh culinary herbs during refrigerated storage. J Food Prot 69: 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hung YC, Tilly P, Kim C (2010). Efficacy of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water and chlorinated water for inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on strawberries and broccoli. J Food Qual 33: 559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jung Y, Jang H, Matthews KR. (2014). Effect of the food production chain from farm practices to vegetable processing on outbreak incidence. Microb Biotech 7(6): 517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kashtock ME (2004). Juice HACCP approaches a milestone. Food Saf Mag 9(6): 11.Google Scholar
  14. Kim JG, Yousef AE, Chism GW (1999). Use of ozone to inactivate microorganisms on lettuce. J Food Saf 19: 17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kim C, Hung YC, Brackett RE (2000). Efficacy of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) and chemically modified water on different types of foodborne pathogens. Int J Food Microbiol 61: 199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Koseki S, Yoshida K, Isobe S, Itoh K (2001). Decontamination of lettuce using acidic electrolyzed water. J Food Prot 64: 652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Koseki S, Yoshida K, Kamitani Y, Itoh K (2003). Influence of inoculation method, spot inoculation site, and inoculation size on the efficacy of acidic electrolyzed water against pathogens on lettuce. J Food Prot 66: 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lee HH, Hong SI, Kim D (2014). Microbial reduction efficacy of various disinfection treatments on fresh-cut cabbage. Food Sci Nutr 2(5): 585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lin CM, Moon SS, Doyle MP, McWatters KH (2002). Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, serotype Enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes on lettuce by hydrogen peroxide and lactic acid and by hydrogen peroxide with mild heat. J Food Prot 65: 1215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Maneerat C, Hayata Y, Muto N, Kuroyanagi M (2003). Investigation of UV-A light irradiation on tomato fruit injury during storage. J Food Prot 66: 2168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Matthews KR (2013). Sources of enteric pathogen contamination if fruits and vegetables: Future directions of research. Stewart Postharv Rev 9: 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mejias-Sarceno G (2011). Inadequate sanitation results in biofilm formation. Food Saf Mag April/May: 1.Google Scholar
  23. Park CM, Hung YC, Doyle MP, Ezeike GOI, Kim C (2001). Pathogen reduction and quality of lettuce treated with electrolyzed oxidizing and acidified chlorinated water. J Food Sci 66: 1368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Predmore A, Li J (2011). Enhanced removal of human norovirus from fresh vegetables and fruits by a combination of surfactants and sanitizers. Appl Environ Microbiol 77(1): 4829.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Sao Jose JFB, Andrade NJ, Ramos, AM, Vanetti MCD, Stringheta PC, Chaves JBP (2014). Decontamination by ultrasound application in fresh fruits. Food Control 45: 36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Seymore IJ, Burfoot D, Smith RL, Cox LA, Underwood AU (2002). Ultrasound decontamination of minimally processed fruits and vegetables. Int J Food Sci Technol 37(1): 547.Google Scholar
  27. Shapton DA, Shapton NF, eds. (1991). Aspects, microbiology safety in food preservation technologies. In Principles and practices for the safe processing of foods. Butterworth-Heinemann: Oxford. p. 305.Google Scholar
  28. Sofos J (2009). Biofilms: Our constant enemies. Food Saf Mag February/March: 1.Google Scholar
  29. Vijayakumar C, Wolf-Hall CE (2002). Evaluation of house sanitizers for reducing levels of Escherichia coli on iceberg lettuce. J Food Prot 65: 1646.Google Scholar
  30. Wang Q, Erickson M, Ortega YR, Cannon JL (2013). The fate of murine norovirus and hepatitis A virus during preparation of fresh produce by cutting and grating. Food Environ Virol 5: 52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Williams RC, Sumner SS, Golden DA (2004). Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and salmonella in apple cider and orange juice as affected by ozone and treatment temperature. J Food Prot 67: 2381.Google Scholar
  32. Wright JR, Sumner SS, Hackney CR, Pierson MD, Zoecklein, BW (2000). Reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on apples using wash and chemical sanitizer treatments. Dairy Food Environ Sanit February: 120.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Norman G. Marriott
    • 1
  • M. Wes Schilling
    • 2
  • Robert B. Gravani
    • 3
  1. 1.Virginia Polytechnic Institute State UniversityBlacksburgUSA
  2. 2.Department of Food ScienceMississippi State UniversityMississippiUSA
  3. 3.Department of Food ScienceCornell UniversityIthacaUSA

Personalised recommendations