Waste Product Handling

  • Norman G. Marriott
  • M. Wes Schilling
  • Robert B. Gravani
Part of the Food Science Text Series book series (FSTS)


The optimal waste treatment system is most effectively identified through a survey to ascertain waste volume and characteristics and water consumption records. Wastewater pollution is measured through biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved oxygen (DO), total organic carbon (TOC), settleable solids (SS), total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), and fats, oil, and grease (FOG). Two important aspects to consider when treating industrial waste loads are (1) the hydraulic load and (2) the pollution strength of the wastewater. More composting is being practiced as a method for solid waste disposal.

Wastewater can be salvaged through recycling and reuse and the recovery of solids. The basic phases of wastewater treatment are pretreatment by flow equalization, screening, and skimming; primary treatment by sedimentation and flotation; secondary treatment by anaerobic lagoons, aerobic lagoons, trickling filters, activated sludge, oxidation ditch processes, land application, and rotating biological contactors (RBCs); and tertiary treatment by physical separation, tertiary lagoons, and chemical oxidations. Disinfection of treated wastewater should follow other treatment phases to reduce the reaction of organic matter with the disinfectant. Odors from wastewater may be treated through the incorporation of a biofilter.


Biochemical oxygen demand Chemical oxygen demand Dissolved oxygen Pretreatment Primary treatment Secondary treatment Tertiary treatment Total organic carbon 


  1. Stanga M (2010). Sanitation cleaning and disinfection in the food industry, 525. Wiley-VCH: Weinheim, Germany.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Norman G. Marriott
    • 1
  • M. Wes Schilling
    • 2
  • Robert B. Gravani
    • 3
  1. 1.Virginia Polytechnic Institute State UniversityBlacksburgUSA
  2. 2.Department of Food ScienceMississippi State UniversityMississippiUSA
  3. 3.Department of Food ScienceCornell UniversityIthacaUSA

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