• Norman G. Marriott
  • M. Wes Schilling
  • Robert B. Gravani
Part of the Food Science Text Series book series (FSTS)


The application of sanitizers is essential to reduce pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms present in food facilities and equipment. Soils must be completely removed for sanitizers to function properly.

The major classifications of sanitizers are thermal, radiation, and chemical. Thermal and radiation techniques are less practical for food production facilities than chemical sanitizing. Of the chemical sanitizers, the chlorine compounds tend to be the most effective and the least expensive. However, they are known to be more irritating and corrosive than the iodine compounds or quaternary ammonium compounds (quats). Bromine compounds are more beneficial for wastewater treatment than for sanitizing cleaned surfaces, although bromine and chlorine are synergistic when combined. The quats are more restrictive in their activities but are effective against mold growth and have residual properties. They do not kill bacterial spores but can limit their growth. Acid-quat and chlorine dioxide sanitizers are considered to be effective for the control of L. monocytogenes, and ozone is a potential chlorine substitute. Silver has been identified as an effective antimicrobial agent. Glutaraldehyde and fatty imidazoline compounds can be incorporated as a sanitizer for conveyor lubricants used in food operations. Various tests are available to determine the concentration of sanitizing solutions.


Acid sanitizers Chloramines Hypochlorite Iodophor Ozone Pasteurization Quats Sanitizer 


  1. Brandt J (2009). The case for ozone. Food Qual 15(6): 32.Google Scholar
  2. Gregerson J (2009). Clean, sanitize, rinse, repeat. Meatingplace 05(09): S3.Google Scholar
  3. Kinney G (2013). Alternative tubing eliminates bacteria in beverage delivery systems. Food Qual 20(2): 34.Google Scholar
  4. Koutchma T (2017). Electrolyzed water as a novel cleaner and sanitizer. Meatingplace 10(16): 85.Google Scholar
  5. Makdesi A (2010). Drain sanitation delivers peace of mind. Food Qual 17(3): 39.Google Scholar
  6. Pellegrini M (2014). Regulating grease. The National Provisioner 228(6): 64.Google Scholar
  7. Stanga M (2010). Sanitation cleaning and disinfection in the food industry, 173. Wiley-VCH: Weinheim, Germany.Google Scholar
  8. Zammer C (2004). Food irradiation: Is it a matter of taste? Food Qual 11(3): 44.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Norman G. Marriott
    • 1
  • M. Wes Schilling
    • 2
  • Robert B. Gravani
    • 3
  1. 1.Virginia Polytechnic Institute State UniversityBlacksburgUSA
  2. 2.Department of Food ScienceMississippi State UniversityMississippiUSA
  3. 3.Department of Food ScienceCornell UniversityIthacaUSA

Personalised recommendations