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Synthesis and Characterisation of Magnetic Nanoparticles in Medicine

  • A. Majid
  • W. Ahmed
  • Y. Patil-Sen
  • T. Sen
Chapter

Abstract

The idea of using magnetic nanomaterials in biomedical applications has been studied since last decades. Magnetic nanomaterials have been found as a promising candidate in biological applications. This chapter presented the diverse approach to engineer the nanoparticles for targeted applications. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPION) cores of 10–25 nm were synthesised using co-precipitation method iron (II) and iron (III) salts in alkaline medium. The superparamagnetic behaviour is an ideal solid support for the hyperthermia ablation and magnetic field-triggered stimuli for drug release. These cores were further coated with mesoporous silica rendering them versatile materials, which can enhance the stability, drug-loading capacity and its release in controllable manner. Moreover, their promising applications as magnetic field-triggered hyperthermia ablation and magnetic field-triggered controlled-release drug delivery combining both thermos-chemotherapy system.

These materials were characterised using a variety of techniques such as Zetasizer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and magnetic field-induced hyperthermia. The diameter of spherical superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles was measured to be from 10 to 255 nm. Crystalline magnetite (Fe3O4) structures were confirmed by powder XRD. These magnetite nanocrystals were further modified with a biocompatible silica shell. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis revealed a mesoporous shell structure. VSM of core-shell composite materials depicted superparamagnetic nature; hence, these materials have the ability to heat over the exposure to an applied external magnetic field for hyperthermia ablation.

Anticancer drug (doxorubicin, DOX) loading and release profile of bare spherical and silica-coated spheres were studied for potential therapeutic application. Exposure to AC magnetic field (200 G, 406 kHz), the SPION materials generated hyperthermia in a time-dependent manner reaching 50 °C in 3 min. Magnetic field-triggered drug release was seen only in spherical core-shell nanocomposites with 6X higher compared at 37 °C without exposure.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiochemistryShah Abdul Latif UniversityKhairpurPakistan
  2. 2.School of Mathematics and PhysicsUniversity of LincolnLincolnUK
  3. 3.School of Physical Sciences and ComputingUniversity of Central LancashirePrestonUK

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