A Review of Empirical Studies on Employability and Measures of Employability

Chapter

Abstract

This chapter focuses on employability as a construct for career construction and life construction in the 21st century. Employability is a valuable individual resource that can be enhanced to help people face a constantly changing labor market characterized by unpredictability and insecurity. The chapter commences with the definition of employability, tracing its evolution through the years, and then discusses the different instruments that are available to measure the construct scientifically. The chapter continues with a review of empirical studies on employability. This review focuses on the antecedents as well as the outcomes of employability (in terms of subjective outcomes and objective outcomes). The aim is to broaden the reflection on employability as an individual strength that can be increased through specific training to help people meet the challenges of the 21st century with greater confidence.

Keywords

Employability Instruments Antecedents Outcomes 

References

  1. Bar-On, R. (1997). The Emotional Intelligence Inventory (EQ-i): Technical manual. Toronto, ON, Canada: Multi-Health Systems.Google Scholar
  2. Bangali, M., & Guichard, J. (2012). The role of dialogic processes in designing career expectations. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 81, 183–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bernaud, J.-L. (2015). Psychologie de l’accompagnement: Concepts et outils pour développer le sens de la vie et du travail [Vocational psychology: Concepts and tools to develop life and work meaning]. Paris, France: Dunod.Google Scholar
  4. Berntson, E., & Marklund, S. (2007). The relationship between perceived employability and subsequent health. Work & Stress, 21(3), 279–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Berntson, E., Sverke, M., & Marklund, S. (2006). Predicting perceived employability: Human capital or labour market opportunities? Economic and Industrial Democracy, 27(2), 223–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bezuidenhout, M., & Coetzee, M. (2010). Preliminary exploratory factor analysis: Student employability scale. Unpublished research report, Department of Industrial and Organisational Psychology, University of South Africa, Pretoria.Google Scholar
  7. Coetzee, M. (2008). Psychological career resources of working adults: A South African survey. South African Journal of Industrial Psychology, 34(2), 32–41.Google Scholar
  8. Coetzee, M. (2010). Exploratory factor analyses of the Graduateness Scale and the Employability Attributes Scale. Unpublished research report, Department of Industrial and Organisational Psychology, University of South Africa, Pretoria.Google Scholar
  9. Coetzee, M., & Beukes, C. J. (2010). Employability, emotional intelligence and career preparation support satisfaction among adolescents in the school-to-work transition phase. Journal of Psychology in Africa, 20(3), 439–446.Google Scholar
  10. Dacre Pool, L. (2017). Developing graduate employability: The CareerEDGE model and the importance of emotional Intelligence. In Graduate Employability in Context (pp. 317–338). UK: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  11. Dacre Pool, L., & Qualter, P. (2013). Emotional self-efficacy, graduate employability, and career satisfaction: Testing the associations. Australian Journal of Psychology, 65(4), 214–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. De Cuyper, N. D., Bernhard-Oettel, C., Berntson, E., Witte, H. D., & Alarco, B. (2008). Employability and employees’ well-being: Mediation by job insecurity. Applied Psychology, 57(3), 488–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. De Cuyper, N., & De Witte, H. (2011). The management paradox: Self-rated employability and organizational commitment and performance. Personnel Review, 40(2), 152–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. De Cuyper, N., Notelaers, G., & De Witte, H. (2009). Job insecurity and employability in fixed-term contractors, agency workers, and permanent workers: Associations with job satisfaction and affective organizational commitment. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 14(2), 193–205.Google Scholar
  15. De Witte, H. (2000). Arbeidsethos en jobonzekerheid: Meting en gevolgen voor welzijn, tevredenheid en inzet op het werk [Work ethic and job insecurity: Measurement and consequences for well-being, satisfaction and productivity]. In R. Bouwen, K. De Witte, H. De Witte, & T. Taillieu (Eds.), Van groep naar gemeenschap. Liber amicorum Prof. Dr Leo Lagrou (pp. 325–350). Leuven, Belgium: Garant.Google Scholar
  16. Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49(1), 71–75.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Diener, E., Wirtz, D., Tov, W., Kim-Prieto, C., Choi, D. W., Oishi, S., et al. (2010). New well-being measures: Short scales to assess flourishing and positive and negative feelings. Social Indicators Research, 97(2), 143–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Di Fabio, A. (2014a). Intrapreneurial Self-Capital: A new construct for the 21st century. Journal of Employment Counseling, 51(3), 98–111.Google Scholar
  19. Di Fabio, A. (2014b, November). Positive Preventive Perspective for A Positive Lifelong Self and Relational Management (PLS&RM): New Challenges and Opportunities for Research and Intervention. Invited keynote speaker at the Conference on Psychology and Health (PHC 2014), Beijing, China.Google Scholar
  20. Di Fabio, A. (2014c). The new purposeful identitarian awareness for the twenty-first century: Valorize themselves in the Life Construction from youth to adulthood and late adulthood. In A. Di Fabio & J.-L. Bernaud (Eds.), The Construction of the Identity in 21st Century: A Festschrift for Jean Guichard (pp. 157–168). New York: Nova Science Publishers.Google Scholar
  21. Di Fabio, A. (2015). Beyond fluid intelligence and personality traits in social support: The role of ability based emotional intelligence. Frontiers in Psychology, 6 (395). doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00395.
  22. Di Fabio, A., & Bucci, O. (2013). Tratti di personalità o intelligenza emotiva per l’occupabilità di studenti universitari? [Personality traits and emotional intelligence for employability of university students?]. Counseling. Giornale Italiano di Ricerca e Applicazioni, 6(2), 195–204.Google Scholar
  23. Di Fabio, A., & Bucci, O. (2015). Self-Perceived Employability Scale for students: Contributo alla validazione italiana con studenti di scuola secondaria di secondo grado [Self-Perceived Employability Scale for students: Contribution to the Italian validation with high school students]. Counseling. Giornale Italiano di Ricerca e Applicazioni, 8(2).Google Scholar
  24. Di Fabio, A. & Bucci, O. (2016). Green positive guidance and green positive life counseling for decent work and decent lives: Some empirical results. In A. Di Fabio & D. L. Blustein (Eds.), “From meaning of working to meaningful lives: The challenges of expanding decent work”. Research topic in Frontiers in Psychology. Section Organizational Psychology, 7 (261). doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00261.
  25. Di Fabio, A., & Bucci, O. (2017). Dispositional Measure of Employability: primo studio per la valutazione delle proprietà psicometriche della versione italiana. Counseling. Giornale Italiano di Ricerca e Applicazioni, 10(1). doi: 10.14605/CS1011707.
  26. Di Fabio, A., & Cumbo, T. (2017). Career management and employability. Counseling. Giornale Italiano di Ricerca e Applicazioni, 10(1). doi: 10.14605/CS1011701.
  27. Di Fabio, A., & Kenny, M. E. (2012a). The contribution of emotional intelligence to decisional styles among Italian high school students. Journal of Career Assessment, 20(4), 404–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Di Fabio, A., & Kenny, M. E. (2012b). Emotional intelligence and perceived social support among Italian high school students. Journal of Career Development, 39(5), 461–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Di Fabio, A., & Kenny, M. E. (2015). The contributions of emotional intelligence and social support for adaptive career progress among Italian youth. Journal of Career Development, 42(1), 48–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Di Fabio, A., & Kenny, E. M. (2016). From decent work to decent lives: Positive Self and Relational Management (PS&RM) in the 21st century. In A. Di Fabio & D. L. Blustein (Eds.), “From meaning of working to meaningful lives: The challenges of expanding decent work”. Research topic in Frontiers in Psychology. Section Organizational Psychology. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00361.
  31. Di Fabio, A., Kenny, M. E., & Claudius, M. (2016). Preventing distress and promoting psychological well-being in uncertain times through career management intervention. In M. Israelashvili & J. L. Romano (Eds.), Cambridge Handbook of international prevention science (pp. 233–254). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Di Fabio, A., Kenny, M. E., & Minor, K. (2014). Emotional intelligence. School-based research and practice in Italy. In M. J. Furlong, R. Gilman, & E. S. Huebner (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology in the schools (2nd ed., pp. 450-464). New York: Routledge, Taylor and Francis.  Google Scholar
  33. Di Fabio, A., & Maree, J. G. (2012). Group-based Life Design Counseling in an Italian context. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 80, 100–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Di Fabio, A., & Maree, J. G. (2013a). Career counseling: The usefulness of the Career Interest Profile (CIP). Journal of Psychology in Africa, 23, 41–50.Google Scholar
  35. Di Fabio, A., & Maree, J. G. (2013b). Effectiveness of the Career Interest Profile (CIP). Journal of Employment Counseling, 50(3), 110–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Di Fabio, A., & Maree, J. G. (Eds.). (2013c). Psychology of Career Counseling: New challenges for a new era. Festschrift in honour of Prof. Mark Savickas. New York: Nova Science Publishers.Google Scholar
  37. Di Fabio, A., & Maree, J. G. (2016). Using a transdisciplinary interpretive lens to broaden reflections on alleviating poverty and promoting decent work. In A. Di Fabio & D. L. Blustein (Eds.), “From meaning of working to meaningful lives: The challenges of expanding decent work”. 7 (503). Research topic in Frontiers in Psychology. Section Organizational Psychology. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00503.
  38. Di Fabio, A., & Palazzeschi, L. (2009). Emotional intelligence, personality traits and career decision difficulties. International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance, 9(2), 135–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Di Fabio, A., & Palazzeschi, L. (2012). Incremental variance of the core self-evaluation construct compared to fluid intelligence and personality traits in aspects of decision-making. Personality and Individual Differences, 53, 196–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Di Fabio, A., & Palazzeschi, L. (2013). Self-perceived Employability for students: Un primo contributo alla validazione italiana [Self-perceived Employability for students: A first contribution to Italian validation]. Counseling. Giornale Italiano di Ricerca e Applicazioni, 6(3), 97–105.Google Scholar
  41. Di Fabio, A., & Palazzeschi, L. (2015a). Beyond fluid intelligence and personality traits in scholastic success: Trait emotional intelligence. Learning and Individual Differences, 40, 121–126.Google Scholar
  42. Di Fabio, A., & Palazzeschi, L. (2015b). Hedonic and eudaimonic well-being: The role of resilience beyond fluid intelligence and personality traits. Frontiers in Psychology, 6(1367). doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01367.
  43. Di Fabio, A. & Palazzeschi, L. (2016). Marginalization and precariat: The challenge of intensifying life construction intervention. In A. Di Fabio & D. L. Blustein (Eds.), “From meaning of working to meaningful lives: The challenges of expanding decent work”. Research topic in Frontiers in Psychology. Section Organizational Psychology. 7(444). doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00503.
  44. Di Fabio, A., Palazzeschi, L., Asulin-Peretz, L., & Gati, I. (2013). Career indecision versus indecisiveness: Associations with personality traits and emotional intelligence. Journal of Career Assessment, 21(1), 42–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Di Fabio, A., & Saklofske, D. H. (2014a). Comparing ability and self-report trait emotional intelligence, fluid intelligence, and personality traits in career decision. Personality and Individual Differences, 64, 174–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Di Fabio, A., & Saklofske, D. H. (2014b). Promoting individual resources: The challenge of trait emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 65, 19–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Fugate, M., & Kinicki, A. J. (2008). A dispositional approach to employability: Development of a measure and test of implications for employee reactions to organizational change. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 81, 503–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Fugate, M., Kinicki, A. J., & Ashforth, B. E. (2004). Employability: A psycho-social construct, its dimensions, and applications. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 65(1), 14–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Frost, R. O., & Shows, D. L. (1993). The nature and measurement of compulsive indecisiveness. Behavior Research Therapy, 31(7), 683–692.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Guichard, J. (2004). Se faire soi [To make oneself Self]. L’Orientation Scolaire et Professionnelle, 33, 499–534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Guichard, J. (2005). Life-long self-construction. International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance, 5, 111–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Guichard, J. (2008). Proposition d’un schéma d’entretien constructiviste de conseil en orientation pour des adolescents ou de jeunes adultes. L’Orientation Scolaire et Professionnelle, 37, 413–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Guichard, J. (2009). Self-constructing. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 75, 251–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Guichard, J. (2013a, November). Career guidance, education, and dialogues for a fair and sustainable human development. Inaugural conference of the UNESCO chair of Lifelong guidance and counselling, University of Wroclaw, Poland.Google Scholar
  55. Guichard, J. (2013b). What competencies need people living in liquid societies to design their lives and direct their careers? In A. Di Fabio & J. G. Maree (Eds.), Psychology of career counseling: New challenges for a new era (pp. 41–60). New York: Nova.Google Scholar
  56. Guichard, J. (2015). From vocational guidance and career counselling to life design dialogues. In L. Nota, & J. Rossier (Eds.), Handbook of Life Design. From practice to theory, from theory to practice (pp. 11–25). Ashland, OH: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
  57. Guichard, J. (2016a). Reflexivity in life design interventions: Comments on life and career design dialogues. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 97, 78–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Guichard, J. (2016b). Une comparaison des apports des modèles de la construction de la carrière et de la construction de soi au life designing counseling [Life-designing counseling: A comparison of the career construction and self-construction approaches]. Psychologie Française, 61(1), 15–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hillage, J., & Pollard, E. (1998). Employability: Developing a framework for policy analysis. London, UK: DfEE.Google Scholar
  60. Hogan, R., Chamorro-Premuzic, T., & Kaiser, R. B. (2013). Employability and career success: Bridging the gap between theory and reality. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 6(1), 3–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Holland, J. L., & Gottfredson, G. D. (1994). Career Attitudes and Strategies Inventory: An inventory for understanding adult careers. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  62. Judge, T. A., Erez, A., Bono, J. E., & Thoresen, C. J. (2003). The Core Self-Evaluations Scale: Development of a measure. Personnel Psychology, 56, 303–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kotsou, I., Nelis, D., Grégoire, J., & Mikolajczak, M. (2011). Emotional plasticity: conditions and effects of improving emotional competence in adulthood. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96(4), 827–839.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Längle, A., Orgler, C., & Kundi, M. (2003). The Existence Scale: A new approach to assess the ability to find personal meaning in life and to reach existential fulfillment. European Psychotherapy, 4(1), 135-146.Google Scholar
  65. Lent, R. W., Lopez, A. M., Lopez, F. G., & Sheu, H. B. (2008). Social cognitive career theory and the prediction of interests and choice goals in the computing disciplines. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 73(1), 52–62.Google Scholar
  66. Lu, C. Q., Sun, J. W., & Du, D. Y. (2016). The relationships between employability, emotional exhaustion, and turnover intention the moderation of perceived career opportunity. Journal of Career Development, 43(1), 37–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Luthar, S. S., Cicchetti, D., & Becker, B. (2000). The construct of resilience: A critical evaluation and guidelines for future work. Child Development, 71, 543–562.Google Scholar
  68. Maree, J. G. (Ed.). (2007). Shaping the story: A guide to facilitating narrative career counseling. Pretoria, South Africa: Van Schaik.Google Scholar
  69. Maree, J. G. (2013). Counselling for career construction: Connecting life themes to construct life portraits: Turning pain into hope. Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Sense.Google Scholar
  70. Maree, J. G., & Di Fabio, A. (Eds.). (2015). Exploring new horizons in career counselling: Turning challenges into opportunities. Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Sense Publishers.Google Scholar
  71. McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. (1987). Validation of the five-factor model of personality across instruments and observers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52(1), 81–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Maddi, S. R. (1990). Issues and interventions in stress mastery. In H. S. Friedman (Ed.), Personality and disease (pp. 121–154). New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  73. Mann, L., Burnett, P., Radford, M., & Ford, S. (1997). The Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire: An instrument for measuring patterns for coping with decisional conflict. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 10, 1–19.Google Scholar
  74. Mayer, J. D., & Salovey, P. (1997). What is emotional intelligence? In P. Salovey & D. J. Sluyter (Eds.), Emotional development and emotional intelligence (pp. 3–31). New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  75. McQuaid, R. W. (2006). Job search success and employability in local labor markets. The Annals of Regional Science, 40(2), 407–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Midgley, C., Maehr, M. L., Hruda, L. Z., Anderman, E., Anderman, L., Freeman, K. E., … Urdan, T. (2000). Manual for the patterns of adaptive learning scales. Retrieved from University of Michigan website: http://www.umich.edu/~pals/PALS%202000_V13Word97.pdf.
  77. Morgan, J., & Farsides, T. (2009). Measuring meaning in life. Journal of Happiness Studies, 10(2), 197–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Nelis, D., Kotsou, I., Quoidbach, J., Hansenne, M., Weytens, F., Dupuis, P., et al. (2011). Increasing emotional competence improves psychological and physical well-being, social relationships, and employability. Emotion, 11(2), 354–366.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Nelis, D., Quoidbach, J., Mikolajczak, M., & Hansenne, M. (2009). Increasing emotional intelligence: (How) is it possible? Personality and Individual Differences, 47, 36–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Petrides, K. V., & Furnham, A. (2000). On the dimensional structure of emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 29, 313–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Rothwell, A., & Arnold, J. (2007). Self-perceived employability: Development and validation of a scale. Personnel Review, 36(1), 23–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Rothwell, A., Herbert, I., & Rothwell, F. (2007). Self-perceived employability: Construction and initial validation of a scale for university students. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 73, 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Rothwell, A., & Rothwell, F. (2017). Graduate Employability: A critical oversight. In Graduate Employability in Context (pp. 41–63). UK: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  84. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2001). To be happy or to be self-fulfilled: A review of research on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. In S. Fiske (Ed.), Annual Review of Psychology, 52 (pp. 141–166). Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews.Google Scholar
  85. Sanders, J., & De Grip, A. (2004). Training, task flexibility and the employability of low-skilled workers. International Journal of Manpower, 25(1), 73–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Savickas, M. L. (2001). The next decade in vocational psychology: Mission and objectives. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 59, 284–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Savickas, M. L. (2002). Reinvigorating the study of careers. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 61, 381–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Savickas, M. L. (2003). Advancing the career counseling profession: Objectives and strategies for the next decade. Career Development Quarterly, 52, 87–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Savickas, M. L. (2005). The theory and practice of career construction. In S. D. Brown & R. W. Lent (Eds.), Career development and counseling: Putting theory and research to work (pp. 42–70). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  90. Savickas, M. L. (2011a). Career counseling. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  91. Savickas, M. L. (2011b). Constructing careers: Actor, agent, and author. Journal of Employment Counseling, 48, 179–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Savickas, M. L. (2011c). New questions for vocational psychology: Premises, paradigms, and practices. Journal of Career Assessment, 19, 251–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Savickas, M. L. (2013). The 2012 Leona Tyler award address: Constructing careers—Actors, agents, and authors. Counseling Psychologist, 41, 648-662.Google Scholar
  94. Savickas, M. L. (2015). Life-design counseling manual. Rootstown, OH: Author.Google Scholar
  95. Savickas, M. L. (2016). Reflection and reflexivity during life-design interventions: Comments on Career Construction Counseling. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 97, 84–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Silla, I., De Cuyper, N., Gracia, F. J., Peiró, J. M., & De Witte, H. (2009). Job insecurity and well-being: Moderation by employability. Journal of Happiness Studies, 10(6), 739–751.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Singh, R., Singh, R., Chawla, G., Chawla, G., Agarwal, S., Agarwal, S., … & Desai, A. (2017). Employability and innovation: development of a scale. International Journal of Innovation Science, 9(1), 20–37.Google Scholar
  98. Tierney, P., & Farmer, S. M. (2002). Creative self-efficacy: Its potential antecedents and relationship to creative performance. Academy of Management Journal, 45, 1137–1148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Tugade, M. M., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2004). Resilient individuals use positive emotion to bounce back from negative emotional experiences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86, 320–333.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. Van Dam, K. (2004). Antecedents and consequences of employability orientation. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 13(1), 29–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Van Der Heijden, B., Boon, J., van der Klink, M., & Meijs, E. (2009). Employability enhancement through formal and informal learning: an empirical study among Dutch non-academic university staff members. International journal of training and development, 13(1), 19–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Van Der Heijde, C. M., & Van Der Heijden, B. I. (2006). A competence-based and multidimensional operationalization and measurement of employability. Human resource management, 45(3), 449–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. van der Klink, J. J., Bü̈ltmann, U., Burdorf, A., Schaufeli, W. B., Zijlstra, F. R. H., Abma, F. I.,... & van der Wilt, G. J. (2016). Sustainable employability – definition, conceptualization, and implications: A perspective based on the capability approach. Scandinavian Journal of Work Environmental Health, 42(1), 71–79. doi: 10.5271/sjweh.3531
  104. Waterman, A. S., Schwartz, S. J., Zamboanga, B. L., Ravert, R. D., Williams, M. K., Bede Agocha, V., … & Donnellan, M. B. (2010). The Questionnaire for Eudaimonic Well-Being: Psychometric properties, demographic comparisons, and evidence of validity. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 5, 41–61.Google Scholar
  105. Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of Positive and Negative Affect: The PANAS Scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1063–1070.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Wille, B., De Fruyt, F., & Feys, M. (2013). Big five traits and intrinsic success in the new career era: A 15—Year longitudinal study on employability and Work-Family conflict. Applied Psychology, 62(1), 124–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Wittekind, A., Raeder, S., & Grote, G. (2010). A longitudinal study of determinants of perceived employability. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31(4), 566–586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Wood, A. M., Linley, P. A., Maltby, J., Baliousis, M., & Joseph, S. (2008). The authentic personality: A theoretical and empirical conceptualization, and the development of the Authenticity Scale. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 55, 385–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Education and Psychology (Psychology Section)University of FlorenceFlorenceItaly

Personalised recommendations