Transfer of momentum is the second physical mechanism we encounter, through which the mechanics of fluids can be examined, including their interaction with the solid structures that may contain, and limit, them. As the subject implies the new concept of motion of matter, some additional care is needed in the analysis. After a brief reference to the basic physical mechanism, we see that fluid flow occurs when a given pressure and/or velocity difference is applied to the fluid. We work out the governing differential equations in two main cases, as both microscopic and macroscopic balances are developed leading to the distribution of the flow velocity vector. With this mechanism, the subject medium participates directly by taking shape and being deformed due to the inherent phase (fluid, solid) interaction and by being traveled across by heat. Then, the fundamental equations of fluid mechanics are derived, which are pervasive in situations where a detailed description of flow field is needed. The concept of boundary layer is then laid out. Finally, the numerical solution is continued by exploiting the problem structure that was initiated in the preceding chapter.
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