Work, Family, and Leisure

  • Karoline GrødalEmail author


For a lot of people, work and family are the two most dominating spheres in life and the ability to balance them is among the greatest social challenges in our time (Halpern, 2005). This has become an important issue because of several societal changes which have led to new responsibilities for both men and women (Innstrand, Langballe, Falkum, Espnes, & Aasland, 2009). For example, the number of employed women increased drastically in the postwar period (Roos, Trigg, & Hartman, 2006). Today, women constitute 47% of the workforce in Norway and increasingly are working full time (Statistics Norway, 2014). Norwegian women are among those who work most compared with women in other European countries. Concurrently, the traditional nuclear family with the father as provider has become increasingly rare, while dual-career couples, where both are facing demands related to both work and home, are more common. In addition, an increasing number of people are living alone (Statistics Norway, 2014) and are sole providers for children (Statistics Norway, 2013) and therefore presumably have to take greater responsibilities on their own.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Public Health and Nursing, Faculty of Medicine and Health SciencesNorwegian University of Science and TechnologyTrondheimNorway

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