Advertisement

Healthy Change in Intervention Research and Reorganization

  • Per Øystein SaksvikEmail author
  • Maria Karanika-Murray
Chapter

Abstract

In this chapter, we will look at reorganization and interventions that aim to improve the conditions for employees to enable them to work under more health-promoting conditions. In this respect, we will examine the common core of two different research traditions: intervention research and research on organizational change. However, these traditions are often highly parallel, so much so that we sometimes wonder why they are not viewed more in context. Either way, to begin with we choose to keep the traditional separation and will begin by considering interventional research.

References

  1. Aagestad, T. S., Tynes, T., Sterud T., Løvseth, K. E., Gravseth, M. H., Eiken, T., … Aasnæss, S. (2011). Faktabok om arbeidsmiljø og helse 2011 [Facts about work environment and health] (STAMI-rapport. Årg. 12 nr. 7). Oslo: Statens arbeidsmiljøinstitutt. Collected from http://www.stami.no/faktabok-om-arbeidsmiljo-og-helse-2011.
  2. Abildgaard, J., Saksvik, P. Ø., & Nielsen, K. (2016). How to measure the intervention process? An assessment of qualitative and quantitative approaches to data collection in the process evaluation of organizational interventions. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1380. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01380.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Argyris, C., & Schön, D. A. (1996). Organizational learning II. USA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  4. Armenakis, A. A., & Bedeian, A. G. (1999). Organizational change: A review of theory and research in the 1990s. Journal of Management, 25, 293–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arnetz, B. B. (1996). Techno-stress: A prospective psychophysiological study of the impact of a controlled stress-reduction program in advanced telecommunication systems design work. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 38(1), 53–65.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bateson, G. (1979). Mind and nature: A necessary unity (Advances in systems theory, complexity, and the human sciences). Hampton Press. ISBN 1-57273-434-5.Google Scholar
  7. Bernstrøm, V. H. (2014). Implementering av organisasjonsendringer i helsesektoren—Hvorfor det ofte går galt [Implementation of organizational change in the health sector—Why it often goes wrong]. Scandinavian Journal of Organizational Psychology, 6(1), 12–21.Google Scholar
  8. Biron, C., & Saksvik, P. Ø. (2010). Sickness presenteeism and attendance pressure factors: Implications for practice. In C. L. Cooper, J. C. Quick, & M. Schabracq (Eds.), Work and health psychology. The handbook (3rd ed.). London: Wiley.Google Scholar
  9. Burke, W. W. (2014). Organization change: Theory and practice (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA, London, New Delhi: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  10. Clegg, C., & Walsh, S. (2007). Change management: Time for a change! European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 13(2), 217–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dahl-Jørgensen, C., & Saksvik, P. Ø. (2002). Tiltaket utvidet egenmelding [The measure extended self-employed sickness absenteeism]. In A. Mikkelsen (Eds.), Tiltak mot sykefravær [Measures against sickness absenteeism]. Oslo: J.W. Cappelens Forlag.Google Scholar
  12. Dahl-Jørgensen, C., & Saksvik, P. Ø. (2005). An evaluation of the impact of two workplace interventions on the health of service workers. International Journal of Health Services, 35, 529–549.Google Scholar
  13. DiFonzo, N., & Bordia, P. (2002). Corporate rumor activity, belief and accuracy. Public Relations Review, 28(1), 1–19. doi: 10.1016/S0363811102001078.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dunham, J. (2001). Stress in the workplace: Past, present and future. London: Whurr.Google Scholar
  15. Eklöf, M., Ingelgård, A., & Hagberg, M. (2004). Is participative ergonomics associated with better working environment and health? A study among Swedish white-collar VDU users. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 34(5), 355–366. doi: 10.1016/j.ergon.2004.04.013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Elo, A. L., Ervasti, J., Kuosma, E., & Mattila, P. (2008). Evaluation of an organizational stress management program in a municipal public works organization. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 13(1), 10–23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Finger, M., & Asún, M. (2000). Adult education at the crossroads. Learning our way out. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  18. Jimmieson, N. L., Terry, D. J., & Callan, V. J. (2004). A longitudinal study of employee adaptation to organizational change: The role of change-related information and change-related self-efficacy. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 9(1), 11–27. doi: 10.1037/1076-8998.9.1.11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Kelloway, E. K., Hurrell, J. J., Jr., & Day, A. (2008). 20 Workplace interventions for occupational stress. In K. Näswall, J. Hellgren, & M. Sverke (Eds.), The individual in the changing working life (pp. 419–441). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kico, E., & Saksvik. P. Ø. (2015). Derailed, but implemented. In M. Karanika-Murray & C. Biron (Eds.) Derailed organizational stress and well-being interventions: Confessions of failure and solutions for success. Springer Education.Google Scholar
  21. Kivimäki, M., Vahtera, J., Pentti, J., Thomson, L., Griffiths, A., & Cox, T. (2001). Downsizing, changes in work, and self-rated health of employees: A 7-year 3-wave panel study. Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal, 14(1), 59–73. doi: 10.1080/10615800108248348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kritsonis, A. (2005). Comparison of change theories. International Journal of Scholarly Academic Intellectual Diversity, 8(1), 1–7.Google Scholar
  23. LaMontagne, A. D., Keegel, T., Louie, A. M., Ostry, A., & Landbergis, P. A. (2007). A systematic review of the job-stress intervention evaluation literature, 1990–2005. International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 13, 268–280.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Lewin, K. (1951). Field theory in social science; selected theoretical papers. In D. Cartwright (Ed.). New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  25. Lewis, L. K. (2011). Organizational change: Creating change through strategic communication. Malaysia: Ho Printing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lien, M., & Saksvik P. Ø. (2016). Healthy change processes—A diary study of five organizational units. Establishing a healthy change feedback loop. Health and Stress. October edition. doi: 10.1002/smi.2698.
  27. Lines, R. (2004). Influence of participation in strategic change: Resistance, organizational commitment and change goal achievement. Journal of Change Management, 4(3), 193–215. doi: 10.1080/1469701042000221696.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Maurier, W. L., & Northcott, H. C. (2000). Job uncertainty and health status for nurses during restructuring of health care in Alberta. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 22(5), 623–641. doi: 10.1177/01939450022044638.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Milch, V., Vaag, J., Giæver, F., & Saksvik, P. Ø. (2013). Building healthy organizations through music and culture interventions. In G. Bauer & G. Jenny (Eds.), Concepts of salutogenic organizations and change: The logics behind organizational health intervention research. New York: Springer Education.Google Scholar
  30. Murta, S. G., Sanderson, K., & Oldenburg, B. (2007). Process evaluation in occupational stress management programs: A systematic review. American Journal of Health Promotion, 21(4), 248–254. doi: 10.4278/0890-1171-21.4.248.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Nelson, A., Cooper, C. L., & Jackson, P. R. (1995). Uncertainty amidst change: The impact of privatization on employee job satisfaction and well-being. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 68, 57–71. doi: 10.1111/j.2044-8325.1995.tb00688.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Nielsen, K., & Randall, R. (2012). Opening the black box: Presenting a model for evaluating organizational-level interventions. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 22(5), 601–617. doi: 10.1080/1359432X.2012.690556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Nielsen, K., Randall, R., & Albertsen, K. (2007). Participants’ appraisals of process issues and the effects of stress management interventions. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 28(6), 793–810. doi: 10.1002/job.450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Nguyen, H., & Kleiner, B. H. (2003). The effective management of mergers. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 24(8), 447–454. doi: 10.1108/01437730310505876.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Nytrø, K., Saksvik, P. Ø., Mikkelsen, A., Bohle, P., & Quinlan, M. (2000). An appraisal of key factors in the implementation of occupational stress interventions. Work & Stress, 13, 213–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. O’Driscoll, M., & Beehr, T. A. (1994). Supervisor behaviors, role stressors, and uncertainty as predictors of personal outcomes for subordinates. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 15(2), 141–155. doi: 10.1002/job.4030150204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Orpen, C. (1994). Interactive effects of work motivation and personal control on employee job performance and satisfaction. The Journal of Social Psychology, 134(6), 855–856. doi: 10.1080/00224545.1994.9923021.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Orucevic, N. (2013). Motstand som ressurs?: En longitudinell studie av en omstilling [Resistance working as a resource?: A longitudinal study of an organizational change] (Unpublished master’s thesis). Trondheim: Department of Psychology, NTNU.Google Scholar
  39. Østerud, A. (2014). En longitudinell studie av endring i Forsvaret [A longitudinal study of change in the armed forces] (Unpublished master’s thesis). Trondheim: Department of Psychology, NTNU.Google Scholar
  40. Øyum, L., Andersen, T. K., & Saksvik, P. Ø. (2006). Good leadership in healthy change processes—Case studies on how managers have made the change process a positive experience for the employees. Paper presented at the EA-OHP Annual Conference, Dublin, Ireland.Google Scholar
  41. Paulsen, N., Callan, V. J., Grice, T. A., Rooney, D., Gallois, C., Jones, E., et al. (2005). Job uncertainty and personal control during downsizing: A comparison of survivors and victims. Human Relations, 58, 463–495. doi: 10.1177/0018726705055033.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Peters, T. J., & Waterman, R. H. (1982). In search of excellence. NY: Warner.Google Scholar
  43. Pollard, T. M. (2001). Changes in mental well-being, blood pressure and total cholesterol levels during workplace reorganization: The impact of uncertainty. Work & Stress, 15(1), 14–28. doi: 10.1080/02678370110064609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Rafferty, A. E., & Griffin, M. A. (2006). Perceptions of organizational change: A stress and coping perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 1154–1162. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.91.5.1154.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Randall, R., Griffiths, A., & Cox, T. (2005). Evaluating organizational stress-management interventions using adapted study designs. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 14(1), 23–41. doi: 10.1080/13594320444000209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Randall, R., Nielsen, K. M., & Tvedt, S. D. (2009). The development of five scales to measure employees’ appraisals of organizational-level stress management interventions. Work & Stress, 23, 01–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Reynolds, S. (1997). Psychological well-being at work: Is prevention better than cure? Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 43(1), 93–102. doi: 10.1016/s0022-3999(97)00023-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Richardson, K. M., & Rothstein, H. R. (2008). Effects of occupational stress management intervention programs: A meta-analysis. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 13(1), 69–93. doi: 10.1037/1076-8998.13.1.69.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Saksvik, P. Ø. (2012). Hunting the trolls of interventions. In Keynote presentation at the IPEP-Conference, Nottingham 23–24 May.Google Scholar
  50. Saksvik, P. Ø., & Nytrø, K. (2001). Improving subjective health and reducing absenteeism in a natural work life-intervention. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 42, 17–24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Saksvik, P. Ø., & Nytrø, K. (2005). Hvordan virksomheter kan forebygge og håndtere belastninger på arbeidsplassen [On how Enterprises can prevent and handle stress at work]. In S. Einarsen & A. Skogstad (Eds.), Den dyktige medarbeider [The skilled employee] (pp. 391–408). Bergen: Fagbokforlaget.Google Scholar
  52. Saksvik, P. Ø., & Nytrø, K. (2011). Utfordringer med å drive systematisk helse-, miljø- og sikkerhetsarbeid i et deregulert arbeidsliv. In Saksvik, P. Ø. (ed.). Arbeids- og organisasjonspsykologi – aktuelle tema til inspirasjon for et bedre arbeidsliv. Oslo. Cappelen Akademisk Forlag.Google Scholar
  53. Saksvik, P. Ø., Nytrø, K., Dahl-Jørgensen, C., & Mikkelsen, A. (2002). A process evaluation of individual and organizational occupational stress and health interventions. Work & Stress, 16, 37–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Saksvik, P. Ø., Olaniyan, S. O., Lysklett, K., Lien, M., & Bjerke, L. (2015). A process evaluation of a salutogenic intervention. Scandinavian Psychologist, 2, e8. http://dx.doi.org/10.15714/scandpsychol.2.e8.
  55. Saksvik, P. Ø., & Tvedt, S. D. (2009). Leading change in a healthy way. Scandinavian journal of Organizational Psychology, 1, 20–29.Google Scholar
  56. Saksvik, P. Ø., Tvedt, S. D., Nytrø, K., Buvik, M. P., Andersen, G. R., Andersen, T. K., et al. (2007). Developing criteria for healthy organizational change. Work & Stress., 21, 243–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Tims, M., & Bakker, A. B. (2010). Job crafting: Towards a new model of individual job redesign. South African Journal of Industrial Psychology, 36, 1–9.Google Scholar
  58. Tosey, P., Visser, M., & Saunders, M. N. K. (2012). The origins and conceptualizations of ‘triple-loop’ learning: A critical review. Management Learning, 43(3), 291–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Tvedt, S. D., & Saksvik, P. Ø. (2012). Finding the content of the process part of interventions. In C. Biron, M. Karanika-Murray, & C. L. Cooper (Eds.), Managing psychosocial risks in the workplace: The role of process issues. Routledge/Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  60. Tvedt, S. D., Saksvik, P. Ø., & Nytrø, K. (2009). Healthy organizational change processes as a prerequisite for a good psychological work environment. Work & Stress, 23, 80–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Vaag J., Saksvik, P. Ø., Theorell, T., Skillingstad, T., & Bjerkeset, O. (2012) Sound of well-being—Choir singing as an intervention to improve well-being among employees in two Norwegian county hospitals, Arts & Health: An International Journal for Research, Policy and Practice, iFirst article, 1–10. doi: 10.1080/17533015.2012.727838.
  62. Visser, M. (2002). Managing knowledge and action in organizations; towards a behavioral theory of organizational learning. In EURAM Conference, Organizational Learning and Knowledge Management, Stockholm, Sweden.Google Scholar
  63. Wilson, M. G., Basta, T. B., Bynum, B. H., DeJoy, D. M., Vandenberg, R. J., & Dishman, R. K. (2010). Do intervention fidelity and dose influence outcomes? Results from the move to improve worksite physical activity program. Health Education Research, 25(2), 294–305. doi: 10.1093/her/cyn065.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Wrzesniewski, A., & Dutton, J. E. (2001). Crafting a Job: Revisioning employees as active crafters of their work. The Academy of Management Review, 26(2), 179–201.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyNorwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)TrondheimNorway
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyNottingham Trent UniversityNottinghamUK

Personalised recommendations