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Bone-Marrow-Derived Cell Therapies in Stroke: Immunomodulatory Effects

  • Laith Maali
  • David C. Hess
Chapter
Part of the Springer Series in Translational Stroke Research book series (SSTSR)

Abstract

Cell therapies have attracted significant attention in treating multiple neurological disorders including stroke. The preclinical studies have paved the road in understanding the potential clinical applications of cell therapies in stroke recovery. Cells can be obtained from multiple sources and transplanted through different routes. Animal and human studies suggest that cell therapies exert their effect via paracrine and immunomodulatory effects rather than physically replacing the damaged cells. Clinical studies are still in the early phases but show safety and feasibility and some hints at efficacy.

Keywords

Cell therapies Stem cells Bone marrow derived Mesenchymal stem cells Multipotent adult progenitor cells Stroke Phase 2 clinical trial Immune modulation Immunomodulation Neuroprotection MultiStem 

Abbreviations

ACTH

Adrenocorticotropic hormone

APCs

Antigen presenting cells

DAMPs

Danger-associated molecular pattern molecules

GABA

gamma-Aminobutyric acid

IA

Intra-arterial

IL

Interleukin

INF

Interferon

IP

IFN-γ-inducible protein

IV

Intravenous

MAPC

Multipotent adult progenitor cells

MCP

Monocyte chemoattractant protein

MHC

Major histocompatibility complex

MIP

Macrophage inflammatory protein

miRNA

microRNA

MMP

Matrix metalloproteinases

MNC

Mononuclear cells

MSC

Mesenchymal stem cells

NIHSS

National Institute of Health Stroke Scale

RANTES

Regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted

RNA

Ribonucleic acid

r-tPA

Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator

SCID

Severe combined immunodeficiency

TLRs

Toll-like receptors

TNF

Tumor necrosis factor

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Neurology, Medical College of GeorgiaAugusta UniversityAugustaUSA

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