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The Role of T Cells in Post-stroke Regeneration

Chapter
Part of the Springer Series in Translational Stroke Research book series (SSTSR)

Abstract

The interaction of the immune system with the brain is necessary for development and surveillance of the healthy brain. The influence of the adaptive immune system on several brain diseases has been described in great detail. In ischemic stroke, a growing body of evidence has demonstrated a key role for T cells in the acute phase after stroke. Pro- and anti-inflammatory T cell subpopulations impact in this early phase the inflammatory milieu and directly affect secondary lesion progression and neuronal injury. Recently, a functional role for T cells has also become more evident also in delayed neuronal (dys-)function and late-phase recovery after stroke. Here, T cells may also affect various non-immunological pathways involved in tissue repair, neuronal plasticity and functional recovery. These pleiotropic effects of T cells on mechanisms such as neurogenesis and angiogenesis suggest T cells as potential therapeutic target to modulate post-stroke regeneration. This chapter will provide a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge about the role of T cells in stroke with a particular focus on regenerative processes in the chronic phase.

Keywords

Stroke Brain ischemia T cell Lymphocyte Inflammation Neuroimmunology Regeneration Cytokines 

Abbreviations

APC

Antigen presenting cell

BBB

Blood brain barrier

BDNF

Brain derived neurotrophic factor

CCR

Chemokine receptor

CNS

Central nervous system

CD

Cluster of Differentiation

CTLA-4

Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated Protein 4

DAMPs

Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns

GITR

Glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor

IFNγ

Interferon gamma

IgE

Immunoglobulin E

IGF-1

Insulin like growth factor 1

IL

Interleukin

MCAO

Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion

MHC

Major Histocompatibility Complex

MMP

Metalloproteinase

NPC

Neural Precursor Cell

RAGE

Receptor for advanced glycosylation endproducts

SGZ

Subgranular zone

SVZ

Subventricular zone

TGF-β

Transforming growth factor beta

Th cell

T helper cell

TLRs

Toll-like receptors

TNF-α

Tumor necrosis factor alpha

Treg

Regulatory T cell

VEGF

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Stroke and Dementia Research (ISD)Klinikum der Universität MünchenMunichGermany

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