Chemokines and Proteolysis: Implications for Stem Cell Dynamics in Ischemic Stroke

Chapter
Part of the Springer Series in Translational Stroke Research book series (SSTSR)

Abstract

Stroke still remains a significant clinical challenge, with only a small proportion of the ischemic patients benefiting from current treatments which are limited by a narrow therapeutic time window. Cerebral ischemic stroke results in severe neurological deficits due to massive loss of neurons and disruption of vasculature. Although our understanding of the stroke pathology has remarkably increased, further insight into the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the post-stroke brain repair is still required to identify more effective drug targets with wider time window. Cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury alters the brain microenvironment including dysregulation of cytokines, chemokines and abnormal release of proteases leading to neuronal cell death, endothelial cell and stem/progenitor cell dysfunction, disruption of blood brain barrier and the vascular unit. Thus, delineating the timely and balanced regulation of proteases, cytokines, chemokines, and stem/progenitor cells is critical for enhancing post-stroke brain protection and repair, and neurological functional recovery. In this chapter, we will present the facts about interactions of chemokines, proteases and stem cells in the context of pathophysiology of stroke.

Keywords

Stroke Ischemic brain injury Chemokines Proteases Stem cells Matrix metalloproteases Dipeptidyl peptidase IV Stromal derived factor 

Abbreviations

CVD

Cerebro-vascular diseases

DPPIV

Dipeptidyl peptidase 4

EPC

Endothelial progenitor cells

HIF-1a

Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α)

IL

Interleukin

MCAO

Middle cerebral artery occlusion

MCP-1

Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1

MMP

Matrix metalloproteases

MSC

Mesenchymal stem cells

NPC

Neural progenitor cells

SDF1

Stromal derived factor

Notes

Acknowledgement

Supported in part by National Institute of Health (R.J.D.) and American Heart Association (U.V.W.), and the department of Neurosurgery, UW Madison, WI 53792.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine and Public HealthUniversity of WisconsinMadisonUSA

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