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Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Therapy of Stroke

  • Yi Shen
  • Poornima Venkat
  • Michael Chopp
  • Jieli Chen
Chapter
Part of the Springer Series in Translational Stroke Research book series (SSTSR)

Abstract

Stroke is a major cause of high mortality, morbidity and long-term disability worldwide. Development of neuroprotective and neurorestorative therapies for stroke has been a target of intense research. Accumulating preclinical literature has identified that bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) treatment of stroke improves neurological functional outcome after stroke. This chapter focuses on the therapeutic effects and molecular mechanisms underlying MSC treatment of stroke, such as angiogenesis, arteriogenesis, neurogenesis and white matter remodeling, as well as a discussion on the interaction/coupling among these restorative events. In addition, the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) and MSC secreted exosomes in mediating intercellular communication between MSCs and parenchymal cells of the brain, and their effects on the regulation of neurovascular remodeling and white matter remodeling after stroke are discussed.

Keywords

Mesenchymal stromal cell Stroke Angiogenesis Neurogenesis White matter remodeling MicroRNA Exosome Neurorestoration 

Abbreviations

BBB

Brain-blood barrier

BDNF

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor

BMMNC

Autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell

CRT

Corticorubral tract

CST

Corticospinal tract

DM

Diabetes mellitus

FGF-2

Fibroblast growth factor-2

GDNF

Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor

HGF

Hepatocyte growth factor

HLA-DR

Human leukocyte antigen-antigen D related

IA

Intra-arterial

IC

Intracerebral

ICH

Intracerebral hemorrhage

ICV

Intracerebro ventricular

IGF

Insulin-like growth factor

IN

Intranasal

IV

Intravenous

miRNA

MicroRNA

MSC

Mesenchymal stromal cell

MSC-Exo

Exosome derived from MSCs

mTOR

Mammalian target of rapamycin

NGF

Nerve growth factor

NPCs

Neural progenitor cells

NSCs

Neural stem cells

OPC

Oligodendrocyte progenitor cell

PGF

Placental growth factor

PTEN

Phosphatase and tensin homologue

SHRSP

Spontaneously hypertensive stroke prone

T1DM

Type 1 diabetic

tPA

Tissue plasminogen activator

VEGF

Vascular endothelial growth factor

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeurologyHenry Ford HospitalDetroitUSA
  2. 2.Gerontology & Neurological Institute, Department of NeurologyTianjin Medical University General HospitalTianjinChina
  3. 3.Department of PhysicsOakland UniversityRochesterUSA

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