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The Combination of Stem Cell Factor (SCF) and Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) in Repairing the Brain Post-acute Stroke

Chapter
Part of the Springer Series in Translational Stroke Research book series (SSTSR)

Abstract

Stroke represents the leading cause of long-term disability in adults worldwide. Most stroke survivors suffer from lifelong neurological deficits. Developing a pharmaceutical approach to enhance brain repair and improve functional outcomes post-acute stroke is a very important but less investigated area in stroke research. Stem cell factor (SCF) and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) are the well-characterized vital hematopoietic growth factors for regulating hematopoiesis. Increasing evidence supports that SCF and G-CSF also play roles in the nervous system. Over the past decade, preclinical studies have demonstrated that SCF in combination with G-CSF synergistically enhances stroke recovery in the subacute or chronic phase. In this chapter, we have reviewed the biological function of SCF and G-CSF in hematopoiesis, neural plasticity, and neurogenesis, and summarized the preclinical studies illustrating the neurorestorative effects of SCF and G-CSF post-acute stroke.

Keywords

Stem cell factor Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor Brain repair Stroke Subacute phase Chronic phase 

Abbreviations

AD

Alzheimer’s disease

BBB

Blood-brain barrier

BDA

Biotinylated dextran amine

BDNF

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor

CADASIL

Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leucoencephalopathy

CNS

Central nervous system

CSF

Colony stimulating factor

CXCR4

C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4

DRGs

Dorsal root ganglia neurons

ECs

Endothelial cells

G-CSF

Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor

GCSFR

G-CSF receptor

GM-CSF

Granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor

HPCs

Hematopoietic progenitor cells

HSCs

Hematopoietic stem cells

LTP

Long-term potential

NSCs/NPCs

Neural stem/progenitor cells

PPF

Paired-pulse facilitation

SCF

Stem cell factor

SDF-1

Stromal cell-derived factor 1

SGZ

Subgranular zone

SHRs

Spontaneous hypertensive rats

Sl

Steel gene

SVZ

Subventricular zone

tPA

Tissue plasminogen activator

U-type spines

Uncertain type spines

W

White-spotting gene

YFP

Yellow fluorescent protein

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Sandy McGillis for her assistance in editing the manuscript. This work was partially supported by the National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (R01 NS060911), National Institute on Aging (1R01AG051674), and Department of Veterans Affairs (I01 RX002125) in the United States.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeurosurgeryState University of New York Upstate Medical UniversitySyracuseUSA

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