Proprioception After Shoulder Injury, Surgery, and Rehabilitation

Chapter

Abstract

The glenohumeral joint is a complex joint for which both the mobility and the stability are significant. It has a broad range of motion; moreover the stabilization has to be provided to be able to create steady motion at distal joints in this range of motion. Neuromuscular control is of great importance to maintain dynamic stabilization. The glenohumeral joint is a mechanoreceptor-rich joint. The sensitivity of these receptors decreases because of the injury and this causes a deficit in the proprioceptive sense. The loss in the proprioceptive sense increases the risk of reinjury. It is critical to provide the proper mechanic for improving this sense. The proper mechanic can be provided with surgical procedures and physiotherapy and rehabilitation practices. Exercise is particularly important in physiotherapy and rehabilitation practices. In this section the receptors in the glenohumeral joint, their locations and functions, the effect of injury on the proprioceptive sense, and restoration of the sense are examined.

Keywords

Shoulder injury Joint position sense Kinesthesia 

References

  1. 1.
    Myers JB, Lephart SM. The role of the sensorimotor system in the athletic shoulder. J Athl Train. 2000;35(3):351–63.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Myers JB, Lephart SM. Sensorimotor deficits contributing to glenohumeral instability. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2002;400:98–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Madhavan S, Shields RK. Influence of age on dynamic position sense: evidence using a sequential movement task. Exp Brain Res. 2005;164:18–28.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sainburg RL, Poizner H, Ghez C. Loss of proprioception produces deficits in interjoint coordination. J Neurophysiol. 1993;70:2136–47.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Janwantanakul P, Magarey ME, Jones MA, Dansie BR. Variation in shoulder position sense at mid and extreme range of motion. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2001;82:840–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Suprak DN. Shoulder joint position sense is not enhanced at end range in an unconstrained task. Hum Mov Sci. 2011;30:424–35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Freeman MAR, Wyke B. The innervation of the knee joint: an anatomical and histological study in cat. J Anat. 1967;101:505–32.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Vangness CT Jr, Ennis M, Taylor JG, Atkinson R. Neural anatomy of the glenohumeral ligaments, labrum, and subacromial bursa. Arthroscopy. 1995;11(2):180–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ide K, Shirai Y, Ito H, Ito H. Sensory nerve supply in the human subacromial bursa. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 1996;5:371–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Windhorst U. Muscle proprioceptive feedback and spinal networks. Brain Res Bull. 2007;73:155–202.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Shields RK, Madhavan S, Cole K. Sustained muscle activity minimally influences dynamic position sense of the ankle. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2005;35:443–51.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Blaiser RB, Carpenter JE, Huston LJ. Shoulder proprioception. Effect of joint laxity, joint position, and direction of motion. Orthop Rev. 1994;23(1):45–50.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Steinbeck J, Brüntrup J, Greshake O, Pötzl W, Filler T, et al. Neurohistological examination of the inferior glenohumeral ligament of the shoulder. J Orthop Res. 2003;21(2):250–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Yang JI, Jan MH, Hung CJ, Yang PL, Lin JJ. Reduced scapular muscle control and impaired shoulder joint position sense in subjects with chronic shoulder stiffness. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2010;29:206–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Suprak DN, Ostering LR, Donkelaar PV, Karduna AR. Shoulder joint position sense improves with elevation angle in a novel, unconstrained task. J Orthop Res. 2006;24:559–68.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Suprak DN, Ostering LR, Donkelaar PV, Karduna AR. Shoulder joint position sense improves with external load. J Mot Behav. 2007;39(6):517–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Walsh LD, Smith JL, Gandevia SC, Taylor JL. The combined effect of muscle contraction history and motor commands on human position sense. Exp Brain Res. 2009;195:603–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zuckerman JD, Gallagher MA, Cuomo F, Rokito A. The effect of instability and subsequent anterior shoulder repair on proprioceptive ability. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2003;12(2):105–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Anderson VB, Wee E. Impaired joint proprioception at higher shoulder elevations in chronic rotator cuff pathology. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2011;92:1146–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Barden JM, Balyk R, Raso VJ, Moreau M, Bagnall K. Dynamic upper limb proprioception in multidirectional shoulder instability. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2004;420:181–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Warner JJ, Micheli LJ, Arslanian LE, Kennedy J, Kennedy R. Patterns of flexibility, laxity, and strength in normal shoulders and shoulders with instability and impingement. Am J Sports Med. 1990;18(4):366–75.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Machner A, Merk H, Becker R, Rohkohl K, Wissel H, et al. Kinesthetic sense of the shoulder in patients with impingement syndrome. Acta Orthop Scand. 2003;74(1):85–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Contemori S, Biscarini A, Botti FM, Busti D, Panichi R, Pettorossi VE. Sensorimotor control of the shoulder in professional volleyball players with isolated infraspinatus muscle atrophy. J Sport Rehabil. 2017;12:1–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Maenhout AG, Palmans T, De Muynck M, De Wilde LF, Cools A. The impact of rotator cuff tendinopathy on proprioception, measuring force sensation. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2012;21:1080–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cuomo F, Birdzell MG, Zuckerman JD. The effect of degenerative arthritis and prosthetic arthroplasty on shoulder proprioception. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2005;14(4):345–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Safran MR, Borsa PA, Lephart SM, Fu FH, Warner JJ. Shoulder proprioception in baseball pitchers. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2001;10(5):438–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wilk KE, Meister K, Andrews JR. Current concepts in the rehabilitation of the overhead throwing athlete. Am J Sports Med. 2002;30(1):136–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Moghadam AN, Khaki N, Kharazmi A, Eskandri Z. A comparative study on shoulder rotational strength, range of motion and proprioception between the throwing athletes and non-athletic persons. Asian J Sports Med. 2013;4:34–40.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Swanik KA, Lephart SM, Swanik B, Lephart SP, Stone DA, et al. The effects of shoulder plyometric training on proprioception and selected muscle performance characteristics. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2002;11:579–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Voight ML, Hardin JA, Blackburn TA, Tippett S, Canner GC. The effects of muscle fatigue on and the relationship of arm dominance to shoulder proprioception. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 1996;23(6):348–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ramsay JR, Riddoch MJ. Position-matching in the upper limb: professional ballet dancers perform with outstanding accuracy. Clin Rehabil. 2001;15:324–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lephart SM, Myers JB, Bradley JP, Fu FH. Shoulder proprioception and function following thermal capsulorraphy. Arthroscopy. 2002;18:770–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Niessen MH, Veeger DHE, Janssen TWJ. Effect of body orientation on proprioception during active and passive motions. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2009;88:979–85.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Erickson RIC, Karduna AR. Three-dimensional repositioning tasks show differences in joint position sense between active and passive shoulder motion. J Orthop Res. 2012;30:787–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Alvemalm A, Furness A, Wellington L. Measurement of shoulder joint kinesthesia. Man Ther. 1996;1:140–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Balke M, Liem D, Dedy N, Thorwesten L, Balke M, et al. The laser-pointer assisted angle reproduction test for evaluation of proprioceptive shoulder function in patients with instability. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2011;131:1077–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Duzgun I, Simsek IE, Yakut Y, Baltaci G, Uygur F. Assessing shoulder position sense using angle reproduction test in healthy individuals: a pilot study. Fizyoterapive Rehabilitasyon. 2011;22(3):240–4.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Lubiatowski P, Ogrodowicz P, Wojtaszek M, Kaniewski R, Stefaniak J, et al. Measurement of active shoulder proprioception: dedicated system and device. Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol. 2013;23:177–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Dover G, Powers ME. Reliability of joint position sense and force-reproduction measures during internal and external rotation of the shoulder. J Athl Train. 2003;38(4):304–10.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Allen TJ, Ansems GE, Proske U. Effects of muscle conditioning on position sense at the human forearm during loading or fatigue of elbow flexors and role of the sense of effort. J Physiol. 2007;15:423–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Lee HM, Liau JJ, Cheng CK, Tan CM, Shih JT. Evaluation of shoulder proprioception following muscle fatigue. Clin Biomech. 2003;18(9):843–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Tripp BL, Boswell L, Gansneder BM, Shultz SJ. Functional fatigue decreases 3-dimensional multijoint position reproduction acuity in the overhead-throwing athlete. J Athl Train. 2004;39(4):316–20.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Yang JL, Chen S, Jan MH, Lin YF, Lin JJ. Proprioception assessment in subjects with idiopathic loss shoulder range of motion: joint position sense and a novel proprioceptive feedback index. J Orthop Res. 2008;26(9):1218–24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Tripp BL, Yochem EM, Uhl TL. Functional fatigue and upper extremity sensorimotor system acuity in baseball athletes. J Athl Train. 2007;42(1):90–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Aydin T, Yildiz Y, Yanmiş I, Yildiz C, Kalyon TA. Shoulder proprioception: a comparison between shoulder joint in healthy and surgically repaired shoulders. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2001;121(7):422–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Maier MW, Niklasch M, Dreher T, Wolf SI, Zeifang F, Loew M, Kasten P. Proprioception 3 years after shoulder arthroplasty in 3D motion analysis: a prospective study. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2012;132(7):1003–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kasten P, Maier M, Retting O, Raiss P, Wolf S, Loew M. Proprioception in total, hemi- and reverse shoulder arthroplasty in 3D motion analyses: a prospective study. Int Orthop. 2009;33(6):1641–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Costello JT, Donnelly AE. Cryotherapy and joint position sense in healthy participants: a systematic review. J Athl Train. 2010;45(3):306–16.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Torres R, Silva F, Pedrosa V, Ferreira J, Lopes A. The acute effects of cryotherapy on muscle strength and shoulder proprioception. J Sport Rehabil. 2016;11:1–24.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Rogol IM, Ernst G, Perrin DH. Open and closed kinetic chain exercises improve shoulder joint reposition sense equally in healthy subjects. J Athl Train. 1998;33(4):315–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Myers JB, Wassinger CA, Lephart SM. Sensorimotor contribution to shoulder stability: effect of injury and rehabilitation. Man Ther. 2006;11:197–201.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Lin YL, Karduna A. Exercise focusing on rotator cuff and scapular muscles do not improve shoulder joint position sense in healthy subjects. Hum Mov Sci. 2016;49:248–57.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Uribe BP, Coburn JW, Brown LE, Judelson DA, Khamoui AV, et al. Muscle activation when performing the chest press and shoulder press on a stable bench vs. a Swiss ball. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24(4):1028–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Mohapatra S, Krishnan V, Aruin AS. Postural control in response to an external perturbation: effect of altered proprioceptive information. Exp Brain Res. 2012;217:197–208.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Pochini AC, Ejnisman B, Alves MTS, Uyeda LF, Nouailhetas VLA, et al. Overuse of training increases mechanoreceptors in supraspinatus tendon of rats SHR. J Orthop Res. 2011;29:1771–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Wilk KE, Voight ML, Keirns MA, Gambette V, Andrews JR, et al. Stretch-shortening drills for the upper extremities: theory and clinical application. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 1993;17(5):225–39.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Heiderscheit BC, McLean KP, Davies GJ. The effects of isokinetic vs plyometric training on the shoulder internal rotators. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 1996;23(2):125–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Wilk KE, Arrigo CA, Andrews JR. Current concepts: the stabilizing structures of the glenohumeral joint. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 1997;25(6):364–79.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Lin JJ, Hung CJ, Yang PL. The effects of scapular taping on electromyographic muscle activity and proprioception feedback in healthy shoulders. J Orthop Res. 2011;29:53–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Morin GE, Tiberio D, Austin G. The effect of upper trapezius taping on electromyographic activity in the upper and middle trapezius region. J Sport Rehabil. 1997;6:309–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Burfeind SM, Chimera N. Randomized control trial investigating the effects of kinesiology tape on shoulder proprioception. J Sport Rehabil. 2015;24(4):405–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Keenan KA, Akins JS, Vrnell M, Abt J, Lovalekar M, Lephart S, Sell TC. Kinesiology taping does not alter shoulder proprioception, or scapular kinematics in healthy, physically active subjects and subjects with Subacromial Impingment syndrome. Phys Ther Sport. 2017;24:60–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Ju YY, Wang CW, Cheng HY. Effects of active fatiguing movement versus passive repetitive movement on knee proprioception. Clin Biomech. 2010;25(7):708–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Ribeiro F, Venancio J, Quintas P, Oliveira J. The effect of fatigue on knee position sense is not dependent upon the muscle group fatigued. Muscle Nerve. 2011;44(2):217–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Zanca GG, Mattiello SM, Karduna AR. Kinesio taping of the deltoid does not reduce fatigue induced deficits in shoulder joint position sense. Clin Biomech. 2015;30(9):903–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Spargoli G. The acute effects of concentric versus eccentric muscle fatigue on shoulder active repositioning sense. Int J Sports Phys Ther. 2017;12(2):219–26.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Physiotherapy and RehabilitationHacettepe UniversityAnkaraTurkey
  2. 2.Faculty of Medicine, Department of Orthopaedics and TraumatologyHacettepe UniversityAnkaraTurkey

Personalised recommendations