Proprioception After Knee Injury, Surgery and Rehabilitation

  • Defne Kaya
  • Mahmut Calik
  • Michael J. Callaghan
  • Baran Yosmaoglu
  • Mahmut Nedim Doral


Proprioception, which is derived from Latin word ‘proprius’, meaning one’s own, refers to the ability to conduct position sense of the body, interpret the data processed and respond consciously or unconsciously to stimuli of appropriate execution of posture or movement. Proprioception allows the perception of the position of the joints and maintains balance, while standing in the presence of complete visual impairment. It can be defined as the ability to perceive the position of limb or joint in space with movement and related influential factors and respond reasonably maintaining safety at the utmost level. The most common proprioceptive measurement methods used in sports traumatology include joint position sense (JPS) and threshold to perception of passive movement (TPM). The majority of these tests are used to analyse the perception rate and acuity of the position and movement. Currently, it is considered that proprioception plays a more critical role rather than pain in understanding the aetiology of degenerative joint diseases and chronic injuries and the protection against damages. For pathologies at the knee joint, proprioceptive deficit of the knee joint may develop in two ways: (i) abnormal tissue stress and (ii) inflammation process with motor control and pain. Several factors including the presence of oedema in the knee joint, the direction and degree of the patellar position, active vs. passive test procedure may lead to altered sense of joint position. It seems that the relationship of proprioception with other performance criteria including muscle strength, laxity and balance will attract further attention in the next years. This chapter discusses knee proprioceptive level after injury, surgery and rehabilitation from a proprioceptive, neuromuscular control basis. The chapter includes proprioceptive and kinaesthetic consideration after (i) patellofemoral pain syndrome, (ii) ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) injury/surgery and (iii) meniscal injury/surgery and therapeutic considerations that optimize knee function.


Knee Proprioception Anterior cruciate ligament Patellofemoral pain Meniscus Surgery 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Defne Kaya
    • 1
  • Mahmut Calik
    • 1
  • Michael J. Callaghan
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Baran Yosmaoglu
    • 5
  • Mahmut Nedim Doral
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health SciencesUskudar UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Physiotherapy and RehabilitationManchester Metropolitan UniversityManchesterUK
  3. 3.Centre for Musculoskeletal ResearchUniversity of ManchesterManchesterUK
  4. 4.Department of Physiotherapy and RehabilitationManchester Royal InfirmaryManchesterUK
  5. 5.Department of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health SciencesBaskent UniversityAnkaraTurkey
  6. 6.Department of Orthopaedics and TraumatologyUfuk University, Faculty of MedicineAnkaraTurkey

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