Advertisement

The Civil War’s Ghosts: Events of Memory Seen Through Lebanese Cinema

  • Joey Ayoub
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Cultural Heritage and Conflict book series (PSCHC)

Abstract

Contributing to the existing literature on memory studies, this chapter approaches the topic of “the disappeared” in Lebanese cinema. Ayoub focuses on the films Sleepless Nights (Raheb in Sleepless Nights. Itar Productions, Lebanon, 2012), Here Comes The Rain (Hojeij in Here Comes the Rain. Online Films-Beirut, Lebanon, 2010), and A Perfect Day (Hadjithomas and Joreige in A Perfect Day. Mille et une Productions, Lebanon, 2005b). These three films thematically circle around the still pressing issue of the civil war’s “ghosts”—some 17,000 missing people still unaccounted for. Discussing memory as an intergenerational dynamic, Ayoub observes how Lebanese cinema has played a major role in fashioning memory of the civil war as a thematic concern. In doing so he demonstrates how these three films can help us understand the ways in which memory, trauma, and amnesia are portrayed and managed in Lebanon.

Works Cited

  1. Abou Assi, Elsa. 2010. Collective Memory and Management of the Past: The Entrepreneurs of Civil War Memory in Post-war Lebanon. International Social Science Journal 61 (202): 399–409.Google Scholar
  2. Abouchedid, Kamal, and Ramzi Nassar. 2000. The State of History Teaching in Private-Run Confessional Schools in Lebanon: Implications for National Integration. Mediterranean Journal of Educational Studies 5 (2): 57–82.Google Scholar
  3. Al-Hout, Bayan Nuwayhed. 2004. Sabra and Shatila: September 1982. London: Pluto.Google Scholar
  4. Bell, Laura. 2014. Frozen Grief: Transitional Justice in Lebanon. Paper presented at the Southern Political Science Association Annual Conference, New Orleans, LA, January. https://www.academia.edu/. https://www.academia.edu/7337885/Transitional_Justice_in_Lebanon.
  5. Beydoun, Ahmad. 1993. Le Liban: Itineraire dans une guerre incivile. Paris: Karthala.Google Scholar
  6. Butler, Judith. 2004. Precarious Life: The Powers of Mourning and Violence. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  7. Carver, Antonia. 2005. Joana Hadjithomas and Khalil Joreige on ‘A Perfect Day. Bidoun.org, December 31. http://bidoun.org/articles/joana-hadjithomas-and-khalil-joreige-on-a-perfect-day.
  8. Donald, Stephanie Hemelryk, and Christoph Lindner (eds.). 2014. Inert Cities: Globalization, Mobility and Suspension in Visual Culture. London: I. B. Tauris.Google Scholar
  9. Fares, Elie. 2016. The Day I Disappeared: Remembering the Lebanese Who Have Been Missing for Decades. A Separate State of Mind: A Blog by Elie Fares, August 30. https://stateofmind13.com/2016/08/30/the-day-i-disappeared-remembering-the-lebanese-who-have-been-missing-for-decades/.
  10. Foucault, Michel. 1977. The Political Function of the Intellectual. Radical Philosophy 17 (13): 126–133.Google Scholar
  11. Ghandour, Marwan, and Mona Fawaz. 2010. Spatial Erasure: Reconstruction Projects in Beirut. ArteEast Quarterly (Spring). Iowa State University Digital Repository. http://lib.dr.iastate.edu/arch_pubs/48.
  12. Hadjithomas, Joana, and Khalil Joreige. 2005a. Press Release for A Perfect Day. http://hadjithomasjoreige.com/a-perfect-day/.
  13. ——— (directors). 2005b. A Perfect Day. Directed by Joana Hadjithomas and Khalil Joreige. Lebanon: Mille et une Productions. DVD.Google Scholar
  14. Hage, Ghassan. 2012. Preface to In Lebanon Adrift: From Battleground to Playground, by Samir Khalaf, 7–11. London: Saqi Books.Google Scholar
  15. Hall, Jonathan. 2009. Displacing Evil: The 1991 Lebanese Amnesty, the City and the Possibility of Justice, ed. Shubhankar Dam and Jonathan Hall. http://www.inter-disciplinary.net/wp-content/uploads/2009/02/hall-paper.pdf.
  16. Hanafi, Sari, Jad Chaaban, and Karin Seyfert. 2012. Social Exclusion of Palestinian Refugees in Lebanon: Reflections on the Mechanisms that Cement their Persistent Poverty. Refugee Survey Quarterly 31 (January): 34–53. doi: 10.1093/rsq/hdr018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Haugbolle, Sune. 2010. Nostalgias. In War and Memory in Lebanon, 96–131. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Hegasy, Sonja. 2014. Boukhari and Shaftari: ‘Memory Confessions’ of Two Arab Perpetrators. ZMO Working Papers, no. 12, Zentrum Moderner Orient, Berlin. https://www.zmo.de/publikationen/WorkingPapers/hegasy_2014.pdf. Accessed April 20, 2017.
  19. ———. Forthcoming. Letter to Oneself: Acknowledging Guilt in Post-war Lebanon. In Civil War and Narrative: Testimony, Historiography, Memory, ed. Karine Deslandes, Fabrice Mourlon, and Bruno Tribout. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  20. Hirsch, Marianne. 2012. The Generation of Postmemory: Writing and Visual Culture After the Holocaust. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Hoffman, Eva. 2004. After Such Knowledge: Memory, History, and the Legacy of the Holocaust. New York: Public Affairs.Google Scholar
  22. Hojeij, Bahji (director). 2010. Here Comes the Rain. 2010. Lebanon: Online Films-Beirut. DVD.Google Scholar
  23. Khalaf, Samir. 2012. Lebanon Adrift: From Battleground to Playground. London: Saqi Books.Google Scholar
  24. Khatib, Lina. 2008. Lebanese Cinema: Imagining the Civil War and Beyond. London: I. B. Tauris.Google Scholar
  25. Krayem, Hassan. n.d. The Lebanese Civil War and the Taif Agreement. American University of Beirut Digital Documentation Center. http://ddc.aub.edu.lb/projects/pspa/conflict-resolution.html. Accessed April 13, 2017.
  26. Larkin, Craig. 2010a. Beyond the War? The Lebanese Postmemory Experience. International Journal of Middle East Studies 42 (4): 615–635.Google Scholar
  27. ———. 2010b. Remaking Beirut: Contesting Memory, Space, and the Urban Imaginary of Lebanese Youth. City & Community 9 (4): 414–442.Google Scholar
  28. Mackey, Sandra. 2006. Lebanon: A House Divided. New York: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
  29. Makdisi, Ussama. 1996. The Modernity of Sectarianism in Lebanon: Reconstructing the Nation-State. Middle East Report 26, no. 200. http://www.merip.org/mer/mer200/modernity-sectarianism-lebanon. Accessed June 15, 2017.
  30. Makhlouf, Issa. 1988. Beyrouth ou la fascination de la mort. Paris: Éditions de la Passion.Google Scholar
  31. Marks, Laura. 2015. Hanan al-cinema: Affections for the Moving Image. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  32. Mazloum, Nadine. 2016. In Honor of Ghazi Aad, a Gathering for the Cause. Newsroom Nomad, December 16. https://newsroomnomad.com/honor-ghazi-aad-gathering-cause.
  33. Nikro, Norman Saadi. 2012. The Fragmenting Force of Memory Self, Literary Style, and Civil War in Lebanon. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars.Google Scholar
  34. Radstone, Susannah. 2000. Memory and Methodology. Oxford: Berg.Google Scholar
  35. Raheb, Eliane (director). 2012. Sleepless Nights. 2012. Lebanon: Itar Productions. https://m.media/en/Films/VID-000169.
  36. Reading, Anna. 2002. The Social Inheritance of the Holocaust: Gender, Culture, and Memory. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Said, Edward. 1999. After the Last Sky: Palestinian Lives. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Salhab, Ghassam (director). 1998. Phantom Beirut. France: GH Films, Idea Productions; Lebanon: Optima Film. DVD.Google Scholar
  39. UMAM Documentation and Research (UMAM D&R). 2016. Raison d’etre. https://www.umam-dr.org/index.php/raisons-detre/. Accessed July 6, 2017.
  40. Weissberg, Jay. 2012. Review of Sleepless Nights, Itar Productions, Variety, December 21. http://variety.com/2012/film/reviews/sleepless-nights-1117948928/.
  41. Willis, Sharon. 1993. Disputed Territories: Masculinity and Social Space. In Male Trouble, ed. Constance Penley and Sharon Willis, 263–281. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joey Ayoub
    • 1
  1. 1.SOASUniversity of LondonLondonUK

Personalised recommendations