Impact of Acephate and Buprofezin on Soil Amylases
Amylases (α- and β-amylase) catalyze the hydrolysis of starch into sugars. They are the important hydrolytic enzymes which randomly cleave internal glycosidic linkages in starch molecules to yield dextrins and oligosaccharides. Several bacteria and fungi are known to produce amylases. Microbial amylases are thus one of the important soil enzymes involved in cycling of carbonaceous compounds and play a vital role in the soil fertility. Activity of soil amylases is therefore considered as one of the indicators of soil pollution by one of several man-made substances such as pesticides. This chapter provides information on the impact of acephate and buprofezin on soil amylases. Results clearly indicated that the lower concentrations (2.5–7.5 μg g−1) of acephate or buprofezin effected a significant stimulation (5–67%) in enzyme activity after single application. However, profound negative influence was noticed at 10 μg g−1 concentration on activity of amylases. Also, after two or three repeated applications of either insecticide, there was a progressive decrease in the enzyme activity. Though similar trend was noticed in NPK-amended soils, greater stimulation in amylase activity (60–240%) was observed with lower concentrations of the insecticides. The interaction of the two insecticides, in combination, at higher concentrations resulted in significant antagonistic effect. Interestingly, this antagonistic effect was more pronounced in soil samples that received N-P-K amendments.
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