Water Sustainability Issues in Biofuel Production
Biofuel production process use fresh water collected mainly from surface water flows or from underground natural reservoirs for different activities and it became contaminated with organic and inorganic pollutants. Waste water quality returned to soil and to surface water flows is very poor. To produce one liter of ethanol, 10–17 L of water are consumed. Biofuel production plants are water intensive and there is an upward trend in water consumption. The chapter will describe agricultural and industrial activities involving current water consumption during biofuel production. Major steps of lifecycles for biofuel production pathways: bioethanol from sugarcane molasses and cellulosic feedstock, Biogas from distillery spent wash and Biodiesel from various sources will be evaluated regarding water consumption. The amount of irrigation water used in growth of biofuel feedstock and water consumption for biofuel production through various processing technologies will be analyzed. The vital importance of water management during the feedstock production and conversion stage of the biofuel’s lifecycle will also be discussed.
KeywordsClimate change Water sustainability Biofuel Fresh water
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