Compare and Contrast

  • Fatma M. AlHaidari


This chapter presents a comparison of the major findings about Kuwaiti and American business meetings. The chapter sheds light on the cross-linguistic and cross-cultural communication differences by providing detailed samples from both investigated organizations. The researcher also compares the agency and power of all managers and staff members to capture the similarities and differences of agency and power in Kuwait City and the Phoenix area. The last section of the chapter outlines the different identities exhibited by managers and staff members in Innovative Kuwait Co. and Global Phoenix.


  1. Abalhassan, K., & Alshalawi, H. (2000). Code-switching behavior of Arab speakers of English as a second language in the United States. Intercultural Communication Studies, 10(1), 179–188.Google Scholar
  2. Al-Hourani, A., & Nur Afizah, T. (2013). Code switching in daily conversation. International Journal of Social Science and Humanities Research (IJSSHR), 1(1), 40–43.Google Scholar
  3. Bargiela-Chiappini, F., & Harris, S. (1997). Managing language: The discourse of corporate meetings. Philadelphia: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bargiela-Chiappini, F., Nickerson, C., & Planken, B. (2007). Business discourse. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baxter, J., & AlA’ali, H. (2016). Speaking as women leaders: Meetings in Middle Eastern and Western contexts. London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Biber, D., Johansson, S., Leech, G., Conrad, S., & Finegan, E. (1999). Longman grammar of spoken and written English. London: Longman.Google Scholar
  7. Blum-Kulka, S., House, J., & Kasper, G. (1989). Cross-cultural pragmatics: Requests and apologies. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.Google Scholar
  8. Boden, D. (1994). The business of talk: Organizations in action. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  9. Bucholtz, M. (1999). “Why be normal?”: Language and identity practices in a community of nerd girls. Language in Society, 28(2), 203–223.Google Scholar
  10. Bucholtz, M., & Hall, K. (2005). Identity and interaction: A sociocultural linguistic approach. Discourse Studies, 7(4-5), 585–614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Coates, J. (1996). Women talk. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  12. Dubois, B., & Crouch, I. (1975). The question of tag questions in women’s speech: They don’t really use more of them, do they? Language in Society, 4, 289–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Eckert, P., & McConnell-Ginet, S. (1992). Communities of practice: Where language, gender and power all live. In K. Hall, M. Bucholtz, & B. Moonwomon (Eds.), Locating power: Proceedings of the second Berkeley women and language conference (pp. 89–99). Berkeley: Berkeley Women and Language Group.Google Scholar
  14. Erikson, E. (1950). Childhood and society. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  15. Ervin-Tripp, S. (1976). Is Sybil there? The structure of some American English directives. Language in Society, 5, 25–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fletcher, J. (1999). Disappearing acts: Gender, power, and relational practice at work. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  17. Gleason, P. (1983). Identifying identity: A semantic history. Journal of American History, 6, 910–931.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gunnarsson, B. (2009). Professional discourse. London: Continuum.Google Scholar
  19. Herrigel, G. (1993). Identity and institutions: The social construction of trade unions in the United States and Germany in the 19th century. Studies in American Political Development, 7(2), 371–394.Google Scholar
  20. Holmes, J. (2000). Doing collegiality and keeping control at work: Small talk in government departments. In J. Coupland (Eds.), Small talk (pp. 32–61). Harlow: Pearson.Google Scholar
  21. Holmes, J. (2006). Gendered talk at work. Oxford: Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Holmes, J., & Marra, M. (2004). Relational practice in the workplace: Women’s talk or gendered discourse? Language in Society, 33(3), 377–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Holmes, J., & Stubbe, M. (2003). Power and politeness in the workplace: A sociolinguistic analysis of talk at work. London: Pearson.Google Scholar
  24. Holmes, J., Stubbe, M., & Vine, B. (1999). Constructing professional identity: “Doing power” in policy units. In S. Sarangi & C. Roberts (Eds.), Talk, work and institutional order: Discourse in medical, mediation and management settings (pp. 351–385). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jenkins, R. (1996). Social identity. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kanter, R. (1993). Men and women of the corporation. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  27. Kowert, P., & Legro, J. (1996). Norms, identity, and their limits. In P. Katzenstein (Eds.), The culture of national security (pp. 451–497). New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Lee, D. (1978). The semantics of just. Journal of Pragmatics, 11, 377–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mullany, L. (2007). Gendered discourse in the professional workplace. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ochs, E. (1993). Constructing social identity. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 26, 287–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Olsson, S. (2006). We don’t need another hero!: Organizational storytelling as a vehicle for communicating a female archetype of workplace leadership. In M. Barrett & M. Davidson (Eds.), Gender and communication at work (pp. 195–208). Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  32. Poncini, G. (2004). Discursive strategies in multicultural business meetings. Bern: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  33. Romaine, S. (2000). Language in society: An introduction to sociolinguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Schwartzman, H. (1986). The meeting as a neglected social form in organizational studies. In L. Cummings & P. Frost (Eds.), Publishing in the organizational sciences (pp. 233–258). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  35. Schwartzman, H. (1989). The meeting: Gatherings in organizations and communities. New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Still, L. (2006). Gender, leadership and communication. In M. Barrett & M. Davidson (Eds.), Gender and communication at work (pp. 183–191). Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  37. Van Dijk, T. (2009). Society and discourse: How context controls text and talk. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Van Leeuwen, T. (2009). Discourse as the recontextualization of social practice: A guide. In R. Wodak & M. Meyer (Eds.), Methods of critical discourse analysis (pp. 144–161). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  39. Vine, B. (2004). Getting things done at work: The discourse of power in workplace interaction. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Vinnicombe, S., & Singh, V. (2002). Sex role stereotyping and requisites of successful top managers. Women in Management Review, 17(3/4), 120–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Weinreich, P., & Saunderson, W. (2003). Analyzing identity: Cross-cultural, societal and clinical contexts. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  42. Zimmerman, D. (1998). Identity, context and interaction. In C. Antaki & S. Widdicombe (Eds.), Identities in talk (pp. 87–106). London: Sage.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fatma M. AlHaidari
    • 1
  1. 1.Public Authority for Applied Education and TrainingKuwait CityKuwait

Personalised recommendations