Equality for Citizens in the EU: Where Did All the Flowers Go?

  • Alison McDonnell


This chapter looks at three issues in relation to equality for citizens in the EU, all of which question the fundamental constitutional status of Union citizenship. First, in a number of areas inequality between Union citizens is accepted, often in the form of discrimination on grounds of nationality. Second, there is a problem of fragmentation and access—because of the proliferation of sources of equal treatment rights and the lack of a clear relationship between them. Thirdly, the very notion of ‘citizen’ within the EU legal order is ambiguous and subject to shortcomings: legally resident third-country nationals within the EU should, in a normal sense, also be considered ‘citizens’. As they are evidently not ‘Union citizens’, this conflicts in a normative sense with the principle of inclusiveness—their access to equal treatment is much more limited as a result.


Citizenship Equality Expulsion Inclusion Non-discrimination Welfare 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Europa Institute – University of LeidenLeidenNetherlands

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