Advertisement

Self-Affirmation of Narcissists on Social Media: A Study Proposing a New Method of Categorization on Facebook Ads

  • Mario Cassar
  • Amir Dabirian
  • Hoda Diba
  • Jirka Konietzny
Conference paper
Part of the Developments in Marketing Science: Proceedings of the Academy of Marketing Science book series (DMSPAMS)

Abstract

This paper explores the possibility of creating a new category of Facebook ads based on the personality of the user. The introduction of social media channels such as Facebook has provided a new platform for performing self-affirmation theory tests and related behavioral studies. This paper is based on the subsidiary hypothesis that while self-affirming themselves, Facebook users disclose information about their personality. A lexical analysis of each user’s Facebook posts can therefore be used for the purpose of profiling the user. The analysis and categorization of users’ posts based on their behavioral and personality traits can potentially assist marketers interested in targeted marketing to reach a specific audience through this powerful online channel. Hence, this study proposes an innovative method that measures narcissistic personality by analyzing a user’s Facebook posts.

Keywords

Self-affirmation Narcissism Social media Online marketing Facebook ads 

References

  1. Ackerman, R. A., Witt, E. A., Donnellan, M. B., Trzesniewski, K. H., Robins, R. W., & Kashy, D. A. (2010). What does the Narcissistic Personality Inventory really measure? Assessment, 18(1), 67–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bergman, S. M., Fearrington, M. E., Davenport, S. W., & Bergman, J. Z. (2011). Millennials, narcissism, and social networking: What narcissists do on social networking sites and why. Personality and Individual Differences, 50(5), 706–711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Buffardi, L. E., & Campbell, W. K. (2008). Narcissism and social networking web sites. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34(10), 1303–1314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Buss, D. M., & Chiodo, L. M. (1991). Narcissistic acts in everyday life. Journal of Personality, 59(2), 179–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cain, N. M., Pincus, A. L., & Ansell, E. B. (2008). Narcissism at the crossroads: Phenotypic description of pathological narcissism across clinical theory, social/personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis. Clinical Psychology Review, 28(4), 638–656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Campbell, W. K., & Foster, C. A. (2002). Narcissism and commitment in romantic relationships: An investment model analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28(4), 484–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carpenter, C. J. (2012). Narcissism on Facebook: Self-promotional and anti-social behavior. Personality and Individual Differences, 52(4), 482–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chen, S. H., & Lee, K. P. (2008). The role of personality traits and perceived values in persuasion: An elaboration likelihood model perspective on online shopping. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 36(10), 1379–1399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cohen, G. L., & Sherman, D. K. (2007). Self-affirmation theory. In R. Baumeister & K. Vohs (Eds.), Encyclopedia of social psychology (pp. 787–789). Thousand Oakes: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  10. ComScore. (2008). Social networking explodes worldwide as sites increase their focus on cultural relevance. 2016, from http://www.comscore.com/Insights/Press-Releases/2008/08/Social-Networking-World-Wide?cs_edgescape_cc=US
  11. Foster, J. D., McCain, J. L., Hibberts, M. F., Brunell, A. B., & Johnson, R. B. (2015). The Grandiose Narcissism Scale: A global and facet-level measure of grandiose narcissism. Personality and Individual Differences, 73, 12–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gonzales, A. L., & Hancock, J. T. (2011). Mirror, mirror on my Facebook wall: Effects of exposure to Facebook on self-esteem. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 14(1-2), 79–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hanna, R., Rohm, A., & Crittenden, V. L. (2011). We’re all connected: The power of the social media ecosystem. Business Horizons, 54(3), 265–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. High, R. (2012). The era of cognitive systems: An inside look at ibm watson and how it works. New York: IBM Corporation, Redbooks.Google Scholar
  15. Kaplan, A. M., & Haenlein, M. (2010). Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media. Business Horizons, 53(1), 59–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kietzmann, J. H., Hermkens, K., McCarthy, I. P., & Silvestre, B. S. (2011). Social media? Get serious! Understanding the functional building blocks of social media. Business Horizons, 54(3), 241–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lee, S. Y., & Seidle, R. (2012). Narcissists as consumers: The effects of perceived scarcity on processing of product information. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 40(9), 1485–1499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Leung, L. (2013). Generational differences in content generation in social media: The roles of the gratifications sought and of narcissism. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(3), 997–1006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mehdizadeh, S. (2010). Self-presentation 2.0: Narcissism and self-esteem on Facebook. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 13(4), 357–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Millon, T., & Davis, R. O. (1996). Disorders of personality: DSM-IV and beyond. New York: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  21. Morf, C. C., & Rhodewalt, F. (2001). Unraveling the paradoxes of narcissism: A dynamic self-regulatory processing model. Psychological Inquiry, 12(4), 177–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Poon, D. C. H., & Leung, L. (2011). Effects of narcissism, leisure boredom, and gratifications sought on user-generated content among net-generation users. International Journal of Cyber Behaviour, Psychology and Learning, 1(3), 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Protalinski, E. (2011). Facebook increases status update character limit to 63,206. ZDNet. Available at: http://www.zdnet.com/article/facebook-increases-status-update-character-limit-to-63206/
  24. Raskin, R. N., & Hall, C. S. (1979). A narcissistic personality inventory. Psychological reports., 45(2), 590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Raskin, R., & Terry, H. (1988). A principal-components analysis of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and further evidence of its construct validity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(4), 890–902.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Rhodewalt, F., Madrian, J. C., & Cheney, S. (1998). Narcissism, self-knowledge organization, and emotional reactivity: The effect of daily experiences on self-esteem and affect. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24(1), 75–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Rosenberg, J., & Egbert, N. (2011). Online impression management: Personality traits and concerns for secondary goals as predictors of self-presentation tactics on Facebook. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 17(1), 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ryan, T., & Xenos, S. (2011). Who uses Facebook? An investigation into the relationship between the Big Five, shyness, narcissism, loneliness, and Facebook usage. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(5), 1658–1664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Short, J. C., & Palmer, T. B. (2007). The application of DICTION to content analysis research in strategic management. Organizational Research Methods, 11, 727–752.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Statista. (2016). Number of monthly active Facebook users worldwide as of 2nd quarter 2016 (in millions). 2016, from http://www.statista.com/statistics/264810/number-of-monthly-active-facebook-users-worldwide/
  31. Steele, C. M. (1988). The psychology of self-affirmation: Sustaining the integrity of the self. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 21, 261–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Stelzner, M. A. (2016). 2016 Social media marketing industry report, “How marketers are using social media to grow their businesses”, Social Media Examiner, May 2016 (pg 7) https://www.socialmediaexaminer.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/SocialMediaMarketingIndustryReport2016.pdf
  33. Stucke, T. S., & Sporer, S. L. (2002). When a grandiose self-image is threatened: Narcissism and self-concept clarity as predictors of negative emotions and aggression following ego-threat. Journal of Personality, 70(4), 509–532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Thomaes, S., Bushman, B. J., de Castro, B. O., Cohen, G. L., & Denissen, J. J. (2009). Reducing narcissistic aggression by buttressing self-esteem: An experimental field study. Psychological Science, 20(12), 1536–1542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Toma, C. L., & Hancock, J. T. (2013). Self-affirmation underlies Facebook use. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 39(3), 321–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Youn, S., & Faber, R. J. (2000). Impulse buying: its relation to personality traits and cues. NA-Advances in Consumer Research Volume, 27, 179–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Academy of Marketing Science 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mario Cassar
    • 1
  • Amir Dabirian
    • 2
  • Hoda Diba
    • 1
  • Jirka Konietzny
    • 1
  1. 1.Luleå University of TechnologyLuleåSweden
  2. 2.Royal Institute of TechnologyStockholmSweden

Personalised recommendations