Raynaud’s Phenomenon

Chapter

References

  1. 1.
    LeRoy EC, Medsger TA. Raynaud’s phenomenon: a proposal for classification. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 1992;10:485–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Herrick AL. Pathogenesis of Raynaud’s phenomenon. Rheumatology. 2005;44:587–96.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Campbell PM, LeRoy EC. Pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis: a vascular hypothesis. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 1975;4:351–68.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Maricq HR, LeRoy EC. Patterns of finger capillary abnormalities in connective tissue disease by “wide-field” microscopy. Arthritis Rheum. 1973;16:619–28.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Harvey GR, McHugh NJ. Serologic abnormalities in systemic sclerosis. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 1999;11:495–502.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    LeRoy EC, Black C, Fleischmajer R, et al. Scleroderma (systemic sclerosis): classification, subsets and pathogenesis. J Rheumatol. 1988;15:202–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wigley FM, Wise RA, Miller R, Needleman BW, Spence RJ. Anticentromere antibody as a predictor of digital ischemic loss in patients with systemic sclerosis. Arthritis Rheum. 1992;35:688–93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Harrison BJ, Silman AJ, Hider SL, Herrick AL. Cigarette smoking: a significant risk factor for digital vascular diseases in patients with systemic sclerosis. Arthritis Rheum. 2002;46:3312–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Thompson AE, Shea B, Welch V, Fenlon D, Pope JE. Calcium-channel blockers for Raynaud’s phenomenon in systemic sclerosis. Arthritis Rheum. 2001;44:1841–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Herrick AL. Treatment of Raynaud’s phenomenon – update, new insights and developments. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2003;5:168–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Raynaud’s Treatment Study Investigators. Comparison of sustained-release nifedipine and temperature biofeedback for treatment of primary Raynaud phenomenon. Results from a randomized clinical trial with 1-year follow-up. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160:1101–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wigley FM, Wise RA, Seibold JR, et al. Intravenous iloprost infusion in patients with Raynaud phenomenon secondary to systemic sclerosis. A multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Ann Intern Med. 1994;120:199–206.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tomaino MM, Goitz RJ, Medsger TA. Surgery for ischemic pain and Raynaud’s phenomenon in scleroderma: a description of treatment protocol and evaluation of results. Microsurgery. 2001;21:75–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ho M, Veale D, Eastmond C, Nuki G, Belch J. Macrovascular disease and systemic sclerosis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2000;59:39–43.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Rheumatic Diseases CentreUniversity of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Salford Royal NHS Foundation TrustSalfordUK

Personalised recommendations